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BACKGROUND Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), an environmentally persistent compound of regulatory concern, has been reported to reduce antibody responses in mice at a single dose. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to evaluate PFOA effects on humoral and cellular immunity using standard assays for assessing immune function, and to derive dose-response data.(More)
BACKGROUND Diseases rarely, if ever, occur in isolation. Instead, most represent part of a more complex web or "pattern" of conditions that are connected via underlying biological mechanisms and processes, emerge across a lifetime, and have been identified with the aid of large medical databases. OBJECTIVE We have described how an understanding of(More)
Domestic chicken embryos are frequently used for avian developmental toxicity studies of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, which are often injected into eggs with oil-based vehicles. The volume of toxicant and vehicle injected ranges from relatively low volumes (0.1-0.5 microl/g egg) to relatively high volumes (1.0 microl/g egg and above). Previous(More)
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a widespread environmental contaminant that is detectable in serum of the general U.S. population. PFOA is a known developmental toxicant that induces mortality in mammalian embryos and is thought to induce toxicity via interaction with the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARα). As the cardiovascular(More)
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is an environmentally persistent fluorinated compound that is present in biological samples worldwide and associated with multisystem toxicity in laboratory animal models. Several studies have reported suppression of T-cell-dependent antibody responses (TDAR) in adult rodent models after 15 or 28 days of exposure. A related(More)
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are environmentally widespread and persistent chemicals with multiple toxicities reported in experimental animals and humans. These compounds can trigger biological activity by activating the alpha isotype of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), ligand-activated transcription(More)
Autism is a devastating childhood condition that has emerged as an increasing social concern just as it has increased in prevalence in recent decades. Autism and the broader category of autism spectrum disorders are among the increasingly seen examples in which there is a fetal basis for later disease or disorder. Environmental, genetic, and epigenetic(More)
Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are environmentally widespread, persistent, and bioaccumulative chemicals with multiple toxicities reported in experimental models and wildlife, including immunomodulation. The two most commonly detected compounds, which also generally occur in the highest concentrations in environmentally exposed organisms, are(More)
Domestic chickens (Gallus gallus) are an excellent model in which to evaluate developmental toxicity and oxidative stress because of their high sensitivity to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The goal of this study was to measure the effects of environmentally relevant doses of TCDD on endogenous hepatic antioxidant enzyme activity in hatchling(More)
94 The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs Programme identifies chemicals, drugs, mixtures, occupational exposures, lifestyles and personal habits, and physical and biological agents that cause cancer in humans and has evaluated about 1000 agents since 1971. Monographs are written by ad hoc Working Groups (WGs) of international(More)