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Fieldwork, including site inspection, sample collection and, in most programmes, some on-site analysis, determines to a large extent the quality of information obtained and represents a significant proportion of the total cost of a cyanobacteria or cyanotoxin monitoring programme. A well-designed and implemented fieldwork programme enhances the quality of(More)
We estimated the disease burden from water, sanitation, and hygiene at the global level taking into account various disease outcomes, principally diarrheal diseases. The disability-adjusted life year (DALY) combines the burden from death and disability in a single index and permits the comparison of the burden from water, sanitation, and hygiene with the(More)
Throughout their lifespan, humans are exposed to many chemical substances, both beneficial and harmful. It is not possible to eliminate exposure to all toxins in our environment. Of the harmful chemicals, some are anthropogenic and others occur naturally. Although cyanotoxins occur naturally, their presence and abundance are, to a large extent, influenced(More)
This is the introductory article in a four-part PLoS Medicine series on water and sanitation. Globally, around 2.4 million deaths (4.2% of all deaths) [1] could be prevented annually if everyone practised appropriate hygiene and had good, reliable sanitation and drinking water. These deaths are mostly of children in developing countries from diarrhoea and(More)
Since 1990, the number of people without access to safe water sources has remained constant at approximately 1.1 billion, of whom approximately 2.2 million die of waterborne disease each year. In developing countries, population growth and migrations strain existing water and sanitary infrastructure and complicate planning and construction of new(More)
OBJECTIVES To estimate exposure to faecal contamination through drinking water as indicated by levels of Escherichia coli (E. coli) or thermotolerant coliform (TTC) in water sources. METHODS We estimated coverage of different types of drinking water source based on household surveys and censuses using multilevel modelling. Coverage data were combined with(More)
In April 2001, draft 'Guidelines' for safe recreational water environments were developed at a World Health Organization (WHO) expert consultation. Later the same month, these were presented and discussed at the 'Green Week' in Brussels alongside the on-going revision of the European Union Bathing Water Directive 76/160/EEC. The WHO Guidelines cover general(More)
Community-led total sanitation (CLTS) is a participatory approach to addressing open defecation that has demonstrated success in previous studies, yet there is no research on how implementation arrangements and context change effectiveness. We used a quasi-experimental study design to compare two interventions in Ethiopia: conventional CLTS in which health(More)
BACKGROUND Access to safe drinking-water is a fundamental requirement for good health and is also a human right. Global access to safe drinking-water is monitored by WHO and UNICEF using as an indicator "use of an improved source," which does not account for water quality measurements. Our objectives were to determine whether water from "improved" sources(More)