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Higher cognitive inhibitory and attention functions have been shown to develop throughout adolescence, presumably concurrent with anatomical brain maturational changes. The relatively scarce developmental functional imaging literature on cognitive control, however, has been inconsistent with respect to the neurofunctional substrates of this cognitive(More)
BACKGROUND People with prodromal symptoms have a very high risk of developing psychosis. AIMS To use functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neurocognitive basis of this vulnerability. METHOD Cross-sectional comparison of regional activation in individuals with an'at-risk mental state' (at-risk group: n=17), patients with first-episode(More)
BACKGROUND Inhibitory dysfunction is a key behavioral and cognitive phenotype of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Both disorders show neuropsychological deficits and fronto-striatal dysfunction during tasks of motor response inhibition and cognitive flexibility. This study investigates differences and(More)
BACKGROUND Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging studies in schizophrenia to date have been largely inconsistent. This may reflect variation in methodology, and the use of small samples with differing illness duration and medication exposure. AIMS To determine the extent and location of white matter microstructural changes in schizophrenia, using(More)
BACKGROUND Abnormalities in inhibitory control and underlying fronto-striatal networks is common to both attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive-disorder (OCD). The aim of this study was to investigate disorder-specific abnormalities in neural networks mediating interference inhibition and selective attention. METHOD(More)
BACKGROUND While recent research points to the potential benefits of clinical intervention before the first episode of psychosis, the logistical feasibility of this is unclear. AIMS To assess the feasibility of providing a clinical service for people with prodromal symptoms in an inner city area where engagement with mental health services is generally(More)
BACKGROUND Psychotic disorders are associated with widespread reductions in white matter (WM) integrity. However, the stage at which these abnormalities first appear and whether they are correlates of psychotic illness, as opposed to an increased vulnerability to psychosis, is unclear. We addressed these issues by using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to(More)
CONTEXT People experiencing possible prodromal symptoms of psychosis have a very high risk of developing the disorder, but it is not possible to predict, on the basis of their presenting clinical features, which individuals will subsequently become psychotic. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that there are volumetric differences between individuals at(More)
BACKGROUND Cognitive models propose that faulty appraisal of anomalous experiences is critical in developing psychosis, particularly delusions. A data gathering bias may be fundamental to abnormal appraisal. AIMS To examine whether there is a data gathering bias in people at high risk of developing psychosis. METHOD Individuals with an at-risk mental(More)
BACKGROUND Several studies have indicated that people with prodromal signs of psychosis show alterations in the structure and function of the brain when they first present to clinical services. However, the longitudinal course of these abnormalities, and how they relate to subsequent clinical and functional outcome is relatively unclear. METHODS A cohort(More)