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BACKGROUND Abnormalities in inhibitory control and underlying fronto-striatal networks is common to both attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive-disorder (OCD). The aim of this study was to investigate disorder-specific abnormalities in neural networks mediating interference inhibition and selective attention. METHOD(More)
Higher cognitive inhibitory and attention functions have been shown to develop throughout adolescence, presumably concurrent with anatomical brain maturational changes. The relatively scarce developmental functional imaging literature on cognitive control, however, has been inconsistent with respect to the neurofunctional substrates of this cognitive(More)
BACKGROUND Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may be related to a dysfunction in frontostriatal pathways mediating inhibitory control. However, no functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study has tested this in children. AIMS To test whether adolescents with OCD in partial remission would show abnormal frontostriatal brain activation during tasks(More)
BACKGROUND Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging studies in schizophrenia to date have been largely inconsistent. This may reflect variation in methodology, and the use of small samples with differing illness duration and medication exposure. AIMS To determine the extent and location of white matter microstructural changes in schizophrenia, using(More)
BACKGROUND Individuals with an "At Risk Mental State" have a 20-30% chance of developing a psychotic disorder within two years; however it is difficult to predict which individuals will become ill on the basis of their clinical symptoms alone. We examined whether mismatch negativity (MMN) could help to identify those who are particularly likely to make a(More)
BACKGROUND Sexual dimorphism in human brain structure is well recognised, but little is known about gender differences in white matter microstructure. We used diffusion tensor imaging to explore differences in fractional anisotropy (FA), an index of microstructural integrity. METHODS A whole brain analysis of 135 matched subjects (90 men and 45 women)(More)
BACKGROUND Psychosis onset is characterized by white matter and electrophysiologic abnormalities. The relation between these factors in the development of illness is almost unknown. We studied the relation between white matter volumes and P300 in prodromal psychosis. METHODS We assessed white matter volume (detected using magnetic resonance imaging) and(More)
BACKGROUND Psychotic disorders are characterized by gray matter and volumetric and electrophysiological abnormalities. The relationship between these factors in the onset of psychotic illness is unclear. METHODS Eighty English-native right-handed subjects (39 subjects at ultra high risk for psychosis "ARMS" and 41 healthy volunteers) were scanned with(More)
The oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2 (OLIG2) regulates the genesis of oligodendrocytes, the brain cells responsible for axonal myelination. Although it has been associated with psychiatric and neurological disorders, the impact of this gene on white matter integrity has never been investigated in humans. Using diffusion tensor imaging, we(More)
BACKGROUND Individuals with an "at-risk mental state" (or "prodromal" symptoms) have a 20-40% chance of developing psychosis; however it is difficult to predict which of them will become ill on the basis of their clinical symptoms alone. We examined whether neurophysiological markers could help to identify those who are particularly vulnerable. METHOD 35(More)