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The Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) has a submodel that predicts rates of feedstuff degradation in the rumen, the passage of undegraded feed to the lower gut, and the amount of ME and protein that is available to the animal. In the CNCPS, structural carbohydrate (SC) and nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) are estimated from sequential NDF(More)
Biomass formation represents one of the most basic aspects of bacterial metabolism. While there is an abundance of information concerning individual reactions that result in cell duplication, there has been surprisingly little information on the bioenergetics of growth. For many years, it was assumed that biomass production (anabolism) was proportional to(More)
Oxidative stress results from a cell or tissue failing to detoxify the free radicals that are produced during metabolic activity. Diabetes is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia that produces dysregulation of cellular metabolism. This review explores the concept that diabetes overloads glucose metabolic pathways, resulting in excess free radical(More)
Ruminant animals depend on cellulolytic ruminal bacteria to digest cellulose, but these bacteria cannot resist the low ruminal pH that modern feeding practices can create. Because the cellulolytic bacteria cannot grow on cellobiose at low pH, pH sensitivity is a general aspect of growth and not just a limitation of the cellulases per se. Acid-resistant(More)
In the mid-1970s, ionophores were approved by the Food and Drug Administration for addition to the rations of ruminants in the United States. Monensin has been used most extensively, but others, including lasalocid, tetronasin, lysocellin, narasin, and laidlomycin, either have been investigated or are used commercially. lonophores generally have improved(More)
AIMS To isolate predominant ruminal bacteria that produce trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) from linoleic acid (LA). METHODS AND RESULTS Mixed bacteria from ruminal contents of a cow fed grain were enriched with DL-lactate and trypticase. They produced more trans-10, cis-12 CLA than those that were not enriched (7 vs 2 microg mg protein(-1),(More)
The Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) has equations for predicting nutrient requirements, feed intake, and feed utilization over wide variations in cattle (frame size, body condition, and stage of growth), feed carbohydrate and protein fractions and their digestion and passage rates, and environmental conditions. Independent data were used(More)
For many years it was assumed that living organisms always utilized ATP in a highly efficient manner, but simple growth studies with bacteria indicated that the efficiency of biomass production was often at least 3-fold lower than the amount that would be predicted from standard biosynthetic pathways. The utilization of energy for maintenance could only(More)
The Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) has a kinetic submodel that predicts ruminal fermentation. The ruminal microbial population is divided into bacteria that ferment structural carbohydrate (SC) and those that ferment nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC). Protozoa are accommodated by a decrease in the theoretical maximum growth yield (.50 vs(More)
Glucose-excess cultures of Streptococcus bovis consumed glucose faster than the amount that could be explained by growth or maintenance, and nongrowing chloramphenicol-treated cells had a rate of glucose consumption that was 10-fold greater than the maintenance rate. Because N,N-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, an inhibitor of the membrane-bound F1F0 ATPase,(More)