James William Russell

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The Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) has a submodel that predicts rates of feedstuff degradation in the rumen, the passage of undegraded feed to the lower gut, and the amount of ME and protein that is available to the animal. In the CNCPS, structural carbohydrate (SC) and nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) are estimated from sequential NDF(More)
Oxidative stress results from a cell or tissue failing to detoxify the free radicals that are produced during metabolic activity. Diabetes is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia that produces dysregulation of cellular metabolism. This review explores the concept that diabetes overloads glucose metabolic pathways, resulting in excess free radical(More)
The Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) has a kinetic submodel that predicts ruminal fermentation. The ruminal microbial population is divided into bacteria that ferment structural carbohydrate (SC) and those that ferment nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC). Protozoa are accommodated by a decrease in the theoretical maximum growth yield (.50 vs(More)
Salmonella is a human pathogen that is commonly found in poultry products. It is possible to decrease chicken carcass and egg contaminations by adding organic acids to the feed or drinking water at appropriate times. Medium-chain fatty acids are more antibacterial against Salmonella than short-chain fatty acids. The antibacterial effect of these acids is(More)
Biomass formation represents one of the most basic aspects of bacterial metabolism. While there is an abundance of information concerning individual reactions that result in cell duplication, there has been surprisingly little information on the bioenergetics of growth. For many years, it was assumed that biomass production (anabolism) was proportional to(More)
The Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) has equations for predicting nutrient requirements, feed intake, and feed utilization over wide variations in cattle (frame size, body condition, and stage of growth), feed carbohydrate and protein fractions and their digestion and passage rates, and environmental conditions. Independent data were used(More)
Ruminant animals and ruminal microorganisms have a symbiotic relationship that facilitates fiber digestion, but domestic ruminants in developed countries are often fed an abundance of grain and little fiber. When ruminants are fed fiber-deficient rations, physiological mechanisms of homeostasis are disrupted, ruminal pH declines, microbial ecology is(More)
The current study examines the association between glucose induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial (Mt) depolarization, and programmed cell death in primary neurons. In primary dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, 45 mM glucose rapidly induces a peak rise in ROS corresponding to a 50% increase in mean Mt size at 6 h (P<0.001). This is(More)
Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) serves as a marker for the state of insulin resistance and predicts both large- and small-vessel vascular complications, independent of a patient's progression to diabetes. Patients with IGT are at significantly increased risk for death and morbidity due to myocardial infarction, stroke, and large-vessel occlusive disease.(More)
AIMS To isolate predominant ruminal bacteria that produce trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) from linoleic acid (LA). METHODS AND RESULTS Mixed bacteria from ruminal contents of a cow fed grain were enriched with DL-lactate and trypticase. They produced more trans-10, cis-12 CLA than those that were not enriched (7 vs 2 microg mg protein(-1),(More)