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BACKGROUND The TNM staging system originated as a response to the need for an accurate, consistent, universal cancer outcome prediction system. Since the TNM staging system was introduced in the 1950s, new prognostic factors have been identified and new methods for integrating prognostic factors have been developed. This study compares the prediction(More)
STUDY DESIGN This study was designed to examine the behaviorial immunohistochemical changes of spinal glial cells and spinal Interleukin (IL)-1beta expression after various nerve root injuries used as models of lumbar radiculopathy. OBJECTIVES In order to better understand the role of central inflammation in the pathophysiologic mechanisms that give rise(More)
CONTEXT For patients with lumbar disk herniation, the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT) randomized trial intent-to-treat analysis showed small but not statistically significant differences in favor of diskectomy compared with usual care. However, the large numbers of patients who crossed over between assigned groups precluded any conclusions(More)
This study was designed to characterize the effects of low doses (0.5-5 ng) of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), on the neural activity of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in rats. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNF) on the(More)
The increased popularity of pedicle fixation prompted research to address two issues: the reliability and validity of roentgenograms as a technique for evaluating the success of pedicle fixation, and the effects of surgical factors on successful fixation. Thus, does approach--the point and angle of screw insertion, surgeon experience, practice, level of the(More)
Unexpected loads, which often occur in the working environment, can lead to high forces in the spine and, thus, may be a cause of low back injury. This paper discusses the effect of "sudden load" on the erector spine reaction and amplitude. Muscle responses were mediated by several factors, including fatigue, posture, expectation and rehabilitation, in(More)
Clinical and experimental work indicate that a variety of factors contribute to radicular pain mechanisms, including mechanical injury. While it has been qualitatively suggested that the magnitude of nerve root mechanical injury affects the nature of the pain response, no study has quantified the local in vivo injury biomechanics in these models. Therefore,(More)
We have recently reported that injury to a lumbar root in a rat model of radiculopathy produces spinal glial activation associated with elevated proinflammatory cytokines. Based on our hypothesis that central neuroinflammatory processes may manifest clinically as radicular pain, we undertook pharmacological intervention using the immunosuppressive agent(More)
A combined finite element and optimization approach to study the effects of muscles on the biomechanics of the lumbar spine was initiated. Briefly, a three-dimensional, nonlinear, finite element model of a ligamentous L3-4 motion segment was formulated (LIG model) for the predictions of stresses, etc., in the motion segment. A separate, biomechanical(More)
STUDY DESIGN A lumbar radiculopathy model investigated pain behavioral responses after nerve root reinjury. OBJECTIVES To gain a further understanding of central sensitization and neuroinflammation associated with chronic lumbar radiculopathy after repeated nerve root injury. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA The pathophysiologic mechanisms associated with(More)