James W. West

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Cytokines are important in the regulation of haematopoiesis and immune responses, and can influence lymphocyte development. Here we have identified a class I cytokine receptor that is selectively expressed in lymphoid tissues and is capable of signal transduction. The full-length receptor was expressed in BaF3 cells, which created a functional assay for(More)
The proinflammatory cytokines IL-17A and IL-17F have a high degree of sequence similarity and share many biological properties. Both have been implicated as factors contributing to the progression of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Moreover, reagents that neutralize IL-17A significantly ameliorate disease severity in several mouse models of human(More)
We have characterized platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) C, a novel growth factor belonging to the PDGF family. PDGF-C is a multidomain protein with the N-terminal region homologous to the extracellular CUB domain of neuropilin-1, and the C-terminal region consists of a growth factor domain (GFD) with homology to vascular endothelial growth factor (25%)(More)
Members of the CD28 family play important roles in regulating T-cell functions and share a common gene structure profile. We have identified VSTM3 as a protein whose gene structure matches that of the other CD28 family members. This protein (also known as TIGIT and WUCAM) has been previously shown to affect immune responses and is expressed on NK cells,(More)
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and phosphatidic acid (PA) are two phospholipids involved in signal transduction and in lipid biosynthesis in cells. LPA acyltransferase (LPAAT), also known as 1-acyl sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acetyltransferase (EC, catalyzes the conversion of LPA to PA. In this study, we describe the isolation and characterization of two(More)
Bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) present an attractive opportunity to combine the additive and potentially synergistic effects exhibited by combinations of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Current challenges for engineering bsAbs include retention of the binding affinity of the parent mAb or antibody fragment, the ability to bind both targets simultaneously, and(More)
The distribution and stability of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in breast milk (BM) components remain largely unknown. Inhibitory effects, if any, of BM on HIV RNA and DNA PCR amplification are poorly understood. We have addressed these issues by using virus-spiked BM samples from HIV-negative women. BM samples from HIV-negative women were(More)
During inactivation of Na+ channels, the intracellular loop connecting domains III and IV is thought to fold into the channel protein and occlude the pore through interaction of the hydrophobic motif isoleucine-phenylalanine-methionine (IFM) with a receptor site. We have searched for amino acid residues flanking the IFM motif which may contribute to(More)
Fast Na+ channel inactivation is thought to involve binding of phenylalanine 1489 in the hydrophobic cluster IFM in L(III-IV) of the rat brain type IIA Na+ channel. We have analyzed macroscopic and single channel currents from Na+ channels with mutations within and adjacent to hydrophobic clusters in L(III-IV). Substitution of F1489 by a series of amino(More)
Endothelial cells lining the walls of blood vessels are exposed simultaneously to wall shear stress (WSS) and circumferential stress (CS) that can be characterized by the temporal phase angle between WSS and CS (stress phase angle - SPA). Regions of the circulation with highly asynchronous hemodynamics (SPA close to -180°) such as coronary arteries are(More)