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In this paper we study the statistics of the realized throughput of elastic document transfers, accounting for the way network bandwidth is shared dynamically between the randomly varying number of concurrent flows. We first discuss the way TCP realizes statistical bandwidth sharing, illustrating essential properties by means of packet level simulations.(More)
This paper investigates consumer switching costs in the context of health insurance markets, where adverse selection is a potential concern. Switching costs contribute to poor choices when the market environment changes and consumers do not adjust appropriately. Though previous work has studied the problems of adverse selection and consumer choice(More)
— We present a rate control algorithm adapted to MPEG video coders ensuring that output conforms to the parameters of a leaky-bucket network access controller. The algorithm avoids unpredictable rate variations without the rigidity and systematic coding delay of constant bit-rate (CBR) coders, and makes possible resource provision for guaranteed quality of(More)
It is proposed to apply an integrated admission control scheme to both streaming flows and elastic flows. It is assumed that streaming flow packets are served with priority in network queues so that admission control ensures minimal delay for audio and video applications while preserving the throughput of document transfers. An implicit measurement-based(More)
So-called elastic flows, corresponding to document transfers of various types, constitute the bulk of Internet traffic. This paper presents models of a single bottleneck link handling elastic traffic, accounting for random flow arrivals. The transport protocol and packet scheduling are taken into account approximately by assuming perfectly realized(More)
Though initially designed for data transport, there is increasing interest in using the 802.11 WLAN protocol for voice and other real time services. This paper presents a performance model for voice over WLAN under distributed control. The model is based on classical decoupling arguments and allows an analytical evaluation of network capacity in terms of(More)
We demonstrate that the Internet has a formula linking demand, capacity and performance that in many ways is the analogue of the Erlang loss formula of telephony. Surprisingly, this formula is none other than the Erlang delay formula. It provides an upper bound on the probability a flow of given peak rate suffers degradation when bandwidth sharing is(More)
We study the behavior, strategy, and performance of investors who purchase homes with the intention of quickly reselling or " flipping " them for a profit. Using detailed micro-level data on transactions in the Los Angeles metro area from 1988-2008 and a novel research design, we identify the presence of two very distinct types of flippers in the market.(More)