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Blindfolded sighted, adventitiously blind, and congenitally blind subjects performed a set of navigation tasks. The more complex tasks involved spatial inference and included retracing a multisegment route in reverse, returning directly to an origin after being led over linear segments, and pointing to targets after locomotion. As a group, subjects(More)
The ability of sighted, blindfolded individuals to navigate while walking was assessed in two types of tasks, one requiring knowledge of a route that previously had been navigated and another requiring more complex spatial inference or computation. A computerized measurement system monitored spatial position. The route tasks included maintenance of a(More)
This paper considers uses of technology in educational assessment from the perspective of innovation and support for teaching and learning. It examines assessment cases drawn from contexts that include large-scale testing programs as well as classroom-based programs, and attempts that have been made to harness the power of technology to provide rich,(More)
Our two experiments investigated associations between cognitive representations of objects and hand-shape categories. Hand configurations were partitioned according to prehensility and the size of the contacting surface, resulting in the classes: pinch, poke, palm, and clench. Experiment 1 elicited object names in response to configuration-name cues,(More)
Two studies addressed people's knowledge about the movements underlying functional interactions with objects, when the interactions were described by simple verbal labels expressing environmental goals. In Experiment 1, subjects rated each action with respect to six dimensions: which portion of the limb moved, distance moved, forcefulness, effectors(More)
The American Educational Research Association (AERA) is pleased to provide guidelines for reporting on empirical social science research in AERA publications. These guidelines apply to reports of education research grounded in the empirical traditions of the social sciences. They cover, but are not limited to, what are commonly called qualitative and(More)
Previous research (Klatzky et al., 1989) shows that the time required to make sensible/nonsensible judgments about an action-object phrase (e.g., "rub your stomach") is reliably faster when the phrase is preceded by a cure representing a specific prototypical hand shape (vs. a neutral cue). The current experiments investigated the effects of preparing for(More)
Two early components of object manipulation are shaping the hand appropriately for functional interaction and transporting the arm with appropriate force and spatial precision to the target object. Three experiments addressed whether people plan these two components before the onset of reaching and if so, how the plans are coordinated. Subjects reached for(More)