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OBJECTIVE To provide an update on the "catecholamine hypothesis" of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD Recent work examining the measurement of the norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine systems in ADHD and normal subjects is reviewed and discussed in the context of recent neuroimaging and animal studies. RESULTS While data(More)
Adenylyl cyclase types 1 (AC1) and 8 (AC8), the two major calmodulin-stimulated adenylyl cyclases in the brain, couple NMDA receptor activation to cAMP signaling pathways. Cyclic AMP signaling pathways are important for many brain functions, such as learning and memory, drug addiction, and development. Here we show that wild-type, AC1, AC8, or AC1&8 double(More)
The importance of the cAMP signaling pathway in the modulation of ethanol sensitivity has been suggested by studies in organisms from Drosophila melanogaster to man. However, the involvement of specific isoforms of adenylyl cyclase (AC), the molecule that converts ATP to cAMP, has not been systemically determined in vivo. Because AC1 and AC8 are the only AC(More)
BACKGROUND Although ethanol exerts widespread action in the brain, only recently has progress been made in understanding the specific events occurring at the synapse during ethanol exposure. Mice deficient in the calcium-stimulated adenylyl cyclases, AC1 and AC8 (DKO), demonstrate increased sedation duration and impaired phosphorylation by protein kinase A(More)
BACKGROUND The Ca2+-stimulated adenylyl cyclases (ACs), AC1 and AC8, are key components of long-term memory processing. AC1 and AC8 double knockout mice (Adcy1(-/-)Adcy8(-/-); DKO) display impaired fear memory processing; the mechanism of this impairment is largely unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We hypothesize that the Ca2+-stimulated ACs(More)
Pretreatment measures of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HYPAC) function in depressed, manic, and healthy normal subjects showed that nonsuppression on the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) had less positive predictive value for major diagnostic category and was more frequent in normals (8/77) than recently reported, although it was yet more(More)
Levels of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) in the CSF, and norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), vanillylmandelic acid, normetanephrine, metanephrine, and MHPG in the urine, were measured in 151 hospitalized patients with affective disorders and in 80 healthy controls following a(More)
Recent research findings indicate that depressive disorders may be divided into two groups, A and B, using specific biochemical and pharmacological criteria. It is suggested that in the A group there is a disorder of norepinephrine systems are not altered. Further, there is the possibility that B types patients have disorder of serotonin, but not(More)