James W Lloyd

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Thousands of millions of injections are delivered every year in developing countries, many of them unsafe, and the transmission of certain bloodborne pathogens via this route is thought to be a major public health problem. In this article we report global and regional estimates of the number of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human(More)
Unsafe injections are suspected to occur routinely in developing countries. We carried out a literature review to quantify the prevalence of unsafe injections and to assess the disease burden of bloodborne infections attributable to this practice. Quantitative information on injection use and unsafe injections (defined as the reuse of syringe or needle(More)
All cattle in 20 dairy herds randomly selected from herds participating in the Dairy Herd Improvement Association program in 2 counties in central Michigan were tested for the presence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Virus-positive animals were retested to ascertain persistent infection with the virus. A total of 5,481 animals were tested for(More)
15 patients with deafferentation pain due to spinal cord injury were investigated for a spinal mechanism of pain transmission. Epidural morphine 5 mg in 5 ml of water had an analgesic effect in 5 patients, 3 of whom also had pain relief with epidural clonidine. Epidural clonidine 150 micrograms in 5 ml of saline had an analgesic effect in 7 patients who did(More)
Haemodynamic measurements and estimates of pulmonary gas exchange have been made in 15 patients during varying degrees of deliberate arterial hypotension induced by IPPV with varying concentrations of halothane in oxygen. Used in this way, halothane caused a dose-dependent arterial hypotension, which was directly related to a reduction in stroke volume and(More)