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Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia with infantile convulsions (PKD/IC) is an episodic movement disorder with autosomal-dominant inheritance and high penetrance, but the causative genetic mutation is unknown. We have now identified four truncating mutations involving the gene PRRT2 in the vast majority (24/25) of well-characterized families with PKD/IC. PRRT2(More)
OBJECTIVE To provide an update on the "catecholamine hypothesis" of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD Recent work examining the measurement of the norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine systems in ADHD and normal subjects is reviewed and discussed in the context of recent neuroimaging and animal studies. RESULTS While data(More)
Adenylyl cyclase types 1 (AC1) and 8 (AC8), the two major calmodulin-stimulated adenylyl cyclases in the brain, couple NMDA receptor activation to cAMP signaling pathways. Cyclic AMP signaling pathways are important for many brain functions, such as learning and memory, drug addiction, and development. Here we show that wild-type, AC1, AC8, or AC1&8 double(More)
The importance of the cAMP signaling pathway in the modulation of ethanol sensitivity has been suggested by studies in organisms from Drosophila melanogaster to man. However, the involvement of specific isoforms of adenylyl cyclase (AC), the molecule that converts ATP to cAMP, has not been systemically determined in vivo. Because AC1 and AC8 are the only AC(More)
Pretreatment measures of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HYPAC) function in depressed, manic, and healthy normal subjects showed that nonsuppression on the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) had less positive predictive value for major diagnostic category and was more frequent in normals (8/77) than recently reported, although it was yet more(More)
BACKGROUND Although ethanol exerts widespread action in the brain, only recently has progress been made in understanding the specific events occurring at the synapse during ethanol exposure. Mice deficient in the calcium-stimulated adenylyl cyclases, AC1 and AC8 (DKO), demonstrate increased sedation duration and impaired phosphorylation by protein kinase A(More)
Adenylyl cyclases (ACs) convert ATP to cAMP and therefore, subserve multiple regulatory functions in the nervous system. AC1 and AC8 are the only cyclases stimulated by calcium and calmodulin, making them uniquely poised to regulate neuronal development and neuronal processes such as learning and memory. Here, we detail the production and application of a(More)
BACKGROUND The Ca2+-stimulated adenylyl cyclases (ACs), AC1 and AC8, are key components of long-term memory processing. AC1 and AC8 double knockout mice (Adcy1(-/-)Adcy8(-/-); DKO) display impaired fear memory processing; the mechanism of this impairment is largely unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We hypothesize that the Ca2+-stimulated ACs(More)