James V. Cassella

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The amplitude of the acoustic startle response in rats is decreased if the startle stimulus is preceded by a nonstartle-eliciting auditory stimulus. This sensory gating phenomenon, known as prepulse inhibition, is diminished in schizophrenic individuals. In rats, the noncompetitive glutamate antagonist MK-801 disrupts prepulse inhibition. The present study(More)
The present study sought to determine appropriate instrumentation for amplification and calibration of cages used to measure the acoustic startle response in rats. Fourier analysis indicated that the characteristic frequency of the rat startle response is about 5-15 Hz. This value was consistent in cages differing widely in resonant frequency, among several(More)
CRF(1) receptor antagonists have been proposed as novel pharmacological treatments for depression, anxiety and stress disorders. The primary goal of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the CRF(1) receptor antagonist, CP 154,526, in the separation-induced vocalization (SIV) model of anxiety. Nine- to 11-day-old rat pups were separated from their(More)
The whole-body acoustic startle response is a short-latency reflex mediated by a relatively simple neural circuit in the lower brainstem and spinal cord. The amplitude of this reflex is markedly enhanced by moderate fear levels, and less effectively increased by higher fear levels. Extensive evidence indicates that the amygdala plays a key role in the(More)
OBJECTIVE The present study evaluated inhaled loxapine for the acute treatment of agitation in patients with bipolar I disorder. METHODS A Phase 3, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group inpatient study was performed at 17 psychiatric research facilities. Agitated patients (N=314) with bipolar I disorder (manic or mixed episodes)(More)
BACKGROUND There is a need for a rapid-acting, non-injection, acute treatment for agitation. AIMS To evaluate inhaled loxapine for acute treatment of agitation in schizophrenia. METHOD This phase III, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00628589) enrolled 344 individuals who received one, two(More)
Fear potentiation of the acoustic startle reflex was produced by eliciting startle responses in the presence of a light that had been previously paired with a shock. Buspirone (0.6–5.0 mg/kg) and gepirone (1.25–10.0 mg/kg), but not their common metabolite, 1-PP (0.5–40 mg/kg), produced a dose-dependent reduction of fear-potentiated startle. These doses of(More)
The present study evaluated the role of various neurotransmitter systems in mediating buspirone's blockade of the fear-potentiated startle effect, where acoustic startle amplitude is normally increased in the presence of a light previously paired with a shock. Large lesions of the dorsal and median raphe nuclei or IP injections of the serotonin antagonists(More)
The objective of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose escalation study was to determine the pharmacokinetic characteristics, safety, and tolerability of single doses of inhaled loxapine aerosol in healthy volunteers. Loxapine was delivered by means of a unique thermally generated aerosol comprising drug particles of a size designed for(More)