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The dynamics of ecological systems include a bewildering number of biotic interactions that unfold over a vast range of spatial scales. Here, employing simple and general empirical arguments concerning the nature of movement, trophic position and behaviour we outline a general theory concerning the role of space and food web structure on food web stability.(More)
Ecology Letters (2010) 13: 394-407 Abstract Mycorrhizal fungi influence plant growth, local biodiversity and ecosystem function. Effects of the symbiosis on plants span the continuum from mutualism to parasitism. We sought to understand this variation in symbiotic function using meta-analysis with information theory-based model selection to assess the(More)
Patterns in food-web structure have frequently been examined in static food webs, but few studies have attempted to delineate patterns that materialize in food webs under nonequilibrium conditions. Here, using one of nature's classical nonequilibrium systems as the food-web database, we test the major assumptions of recent advances in food-web theory. We(More)
In this paper, we consider local and non-local spatially explicit mathematical models for biological phenomena. We show that, when rate differences between fast and slow local dynamics are great enough, non-local models are adequate simplifications of local models. Non-local models thus avoid describing fast processes in mechanistic detail, instead(More)
Fluctuations in resource quality and quantity, and changes in mortality due to predators and parasites are thought to be of prime importance in the regular fluctuations of forest insects. We examine how food limitation and parasitoids with different phenologies of attack regulate the population cycles of insect hosts. Our analysis of the limit cycle of a(More)
Climate change will likely alter the distribution and abundance of northern mammals through a combination of direct, abiotic effects (e.g., changes in temperature and precipitation) and indirect, biotic effects (e.g., changes in the abundance of resources, competitors, and predators). Bioenergetic approaches are ideally suited to predicting the impacts of(More)
Empirical studies of spatial heterogeneity in parasitism by insect parasitoids have focused largely on patterns, while the many possible underlying mechanisms have been little studied in the field. We conducted experimental and observational studies on Tachinomyia similis (Diptera: Tachinidae) attacking western tussock moths (Orgyia vetusta; Lepidoptera:(More)
Many emerging pathogens infect both domesticated and wild host species, creating the potential for pathogen transmission between domesticated and wild populations. This common situation raises the question of whether managing negative impacts of disease on a focal host population (whether domesticated, endangered, or pest) requires management of only the(More)
Plants form belowground associations with mycorrhizal fungi in one of the most common symbioses on Earth. However, few large-scale generalizations exist for the structure and function of mycorrhizal symbioses, as the nature of this relationship varies from mutualistic to parasitic and is largely context-dependent. We announce the public release of MycoDB, a(More)
Plants form ubiquitous associations with diverse microbes. These interactions range from parasitism to mutualism, depending partly on resource supplies that are being altered by global change. While many studies have considered the separate effects of pathogens and mutualists on their hosts, few studies have investigated interactions among microbial(More)