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We introduce the concept of membership-concealing overlay networks (MCONs), which hide the real-world identities of participants. We argue that while membership concealment is orthogonal to anonymity and censorship resistance, pseudonymous communication and censorship resistance become much easier if done over a membership-concealing network. We formalize(More)
The Kad network, an implementation of the Kademlia DHT protocol, supports the popular eDonkey peer-to-peer file sharing network and has over 1 million concurrent nodes. We describe several attacks that exploit critical design weaknesses in Kad to allow an attacker with modest resources to cause a significant fraction of all searches to fail. We measure the(More)
Modern advanced botnets may employ a decentralized peer-to-peer overlay network to bootstrap and maintain their command and control channels, making them more resilient to traditional mitigation efforts such as server incapacitation. As an alternative strategy, the malware defense community has been trying to identify the bot-infected hosts and enumerate(More)
Port knocking is a technique to prevent attackers from discovering and exploiting vulnerable network services, while allowing access for authenticated users. Unfortunately, most work in this area suffers from a lack of a clear threat model or motivation. To remedy this, we introduce a formal security model for port knocking, show how previous schemes fail(More)
The Kad network, an implementation of the Kademlia DHT protocol, supports the popular eDonkey peer-to-peer file sharing network and has over 1 million concurrent nodes. We describe several attacks that exploit critical design weaknesses in Kad to allow an attacker with modest resources to cause a significant fraction of all searches to fail. We measure the(More)
This study tested the hypothesis that the cutaneous vasoconstrictor response to cold is reduced in elderly individuals. We measured laser Doppler flux (LDF) in the fingertip and blood cell velocity (CBV), via videodensitometry, in individual capillaries of the finger nailfold both before and during submersion of the contralateral arm in a 15 degrees C water(More)
The ability to analyze the behavior of large distributed systems can be limited by the modeling tools used. The Distributed Virtual Network (DVN) is a discrete event network simulator providing a platform for realistic, high fidelity, scalable and repeatable simulations of large distributed systems. With a global view of the network, it provides the ability(More)
This study tested the hypothesis that the rarefaction of cutaneous capillaries with age is compensated by an increase in the response of remaining capillaries to heat stress. Experiments were performed on unanesthetized male Sprague Dawley rats of the following age groups: young (Y--age 4 mo.), middle aged (M--age 16 mo.) and old (O--age 27 mo.). The(More)
Secure and timely information and intelligence sharing is essential in combatting terrorism and/or responding to emergency situations. Adequate security boundary controls are needed to ensure that sensitive information stays within the defined boundaries while being shared across the networks. The traditional technologies such as the Guard, VPN and Firewall(More)
The network Security is the hottest topic in the current research scenario. The information security is really threatened by obnoxious users. With increasing vulnerabilities, caused by port scan attacks, replay attacks and predominantly IP Spoofing, targeting services, the network behavior is getting malevolent. But there is a lack of any clear threat(More)