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A gene (yacK) encoding a putative multicopper oxidase (MCO) was cloned from Escherichia coli, and the expressed enzyme was demonstrated to exhibit phenoloxidase and ferroxidase activities. The purified protein contained six copper atoms per polypeptide chain and displayed optical and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra consistent with the presence(More)
A new chromogenic substrate for laccases and peroxidases, 1,8-diaminonapthalene, was used to detect phenoloxidase activity in gels after SDS-PAGE. This substrate has several advantages over other widely used phenoloxidase stains in that it is inexpensive, and the oxidized product has both high molar absorptivity and very low solubility. Furthermore, neither(More)
Bacteriophages deploy lysins that degrade the bacterial cell wall and facilitate virus egress from the host. When applied exogenously, these enzymes destroy susceptible microbes and, accordingly, have potential as therapeutic agents. The most potent lysin identified to date is PlyC, an enzyme assembled from two components (PlyCA and PlyCB) that is specific(More)
Streptococcus equi is the causative agent of the purulent infection equine strangles. This disease is transmitted through shedding of live bacteria from nasal secretions and abscess drainage or by contact with surfaces contaminated by the bacteria. Disinfectants are effective against S. equi, but inactivation by environmental factors, damage to equipment,(More)
Ferroxidase activity was detected in a laccase-like multicopper oxidase (LMCO) produced in transgenic tobacco cells expressing an LMCO cDNA (Ltlacc2.2) cloned from yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera). This marks the first report of ferroxidase activity associated with a plant laccase and suggests that some members of this plant enzyme family may have(More)
The amyloid beta-peptide deposit found in the brain tissue of patients with Alzheimer disease is derived from a large heparin-binding protein precursor APP. The biological function of APP and its homologs is not precisely known. Here we report the x-ray structure of the E2 domain of APL-1, an APP homolog in Caenorhabditis elegans, and compare it to the(More)
Human carboxypeptidase N (CPN), a member of the CPN/E subfamily of "regulatory" metallo-carboxypeptidases, is an extracellular glycoprotein synthesized in the liver and secreted into the blood, where it controls the activity of vasoactive peptide hormones, growth factors and cytokines by specifically removing C-terminal basic residues. Normally, CPN(More)
In Gram-negative bacteria, the chaperone protein Skp forms specific and stable complexes with membrane proteins while they are transported across the periplasm to the outer membrane. The jellyfish-like architecture of Skp is similar to the eukaryotic and archaeal prefoldins and the mitochondrial Tim chaperones, that is the α-helical "tentacles" extend from(More)
High-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) provides a robust approach for producing unique spectral signatures of protein higher order structure at atomic resolution. Such signatures can be used as a tool to establish consistency of protein folding for the assessment of monoclonal antibody (mAb) drug quality and comparability. Using the(More)
A number of structural biology techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and small-angle neutron scattering can be performed with proteins with nuclei at natural isotope abundance. However, the use of proteins labeled with stable isotopes ((2)H, (13)C, and (15)N) enables greater experimental flexibility. In this chapter, several methods for(More)
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