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BACKGROUND There is a growing recognition of the value of synthesising qualitative research in the evidence base in order to facilitate effective and appropriate health care. In response to this, methods for undertaking these syntheses are currently being developed. Thematic analysis is a method that is often used to analyse data in primary qualitative(More)
BACKGROUND In recent years, a growing number of methods for synthesising qualitative research have emerged, particularly in relation to health-related research. There is a need for both researchers and commissioners to be able to distinguish between these methods and to select which method is the most appropriate to their situation. DISCUSSION A number of(More)
BACKGROUND The gap between research and practice or policy is often described as a problem. To identify new barriers of and facilitators to the use of evidence by policymakers, and assess the state of research in this area, we updated a systematic review. METHODS Systematic review. We searched online databases including Medline, Embase, SocSci Abstracts,(More)
BACKGROUND The mammalian receptor protein tyrosine kinase (RTK), Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK), was first described as the product of the t(2;5) chromosomal translocation found in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. While the mechanism of ALK activation in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma has been examined, to date, no in vivo role for this orphan insulin receptor family RTK(More)
1. Using equivalent short circuit current (ISC) measurements we examined the effect of extracellular ATP on transepithelial ion transport in M-1 mouse cortical collecting duct cells. Apical addition of ATP produced a rapid transient peak increase in ISC. This was followed by a fall below basal ISC due to a reduction in the amiloride-sensitive ISC component.(More)
Many different types of cells develop increased adenylyl cyclase activity (sensitization) on prior treatment with drugs such as opiates that acutely inhibit the enzyme. We found that human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 m2 cells, which express the inhibitory m2 muscarinic cholinergic receptor, exhibit a large increase in forskolin-stimulated cAMP synthesis when(More)
BACKGROUND Clozapine, a relatively expensive antipsychotic drug, is widely used to treat patients with refractory schizophrenia. It has a low incidence of extrapyramidal side effects but may cause agranulocytosis. There have been no long-term assessments of its effect on symptoms, social functioning, and the use and cost of health care. METHODS We(More)
Research can be understood as systematic investigation to develop theories, establish evidence and solve problems. We can either undertake new research or we can learn from what others have already studied. How, then, do we go about finding out what has already been studied, how it has been studied, and what this research has found out? A common method is(More)
Opioid action was thought to exert reinforcing effects solely via the initial agonism of opioid receptors. Here, we present evidence for an additional novel contributor to opioid reward: the innate immune pattern-recognition receptor, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and its MyD88-dependent signaling. Blockade of TLR4/MD2 by administration of the nonopioid,(More)
Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of the nail plate or nail bed. It does not usually cure itself and it can trigger more infectious lesions in other parts of the body. The reported prevalence of onychomycosis is increasing in Western countries, presumably due to lifestyle changes and the ageing of the population. Approximately 10% of the general(More)