James T Sims

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Subsurface pathways can play an important role in agricultural phosphorus (P) losses that can decrease surface water quality. This study evaluated agronomic and environmental soil tests for predicting P losses in water leaching from undisturbed soils. Intact soil columns were collected for five soil types that a wide range in soil test P. The columns were(More)
Modifying poultry diets by reducing mineral P supplementation and/or adding phytase may change the chemical composition of P in manures and affect the mobility of P in manure-amended soils. We studied the speciation of P in manures produced by broiler chickens and turkeys from either normal diets, or diets with reduced amounts of non-phytate phosphorus(More)
Modifying broiler diets to mitigate water quality concerns linked to excess phosphorus (P) in regions of intensive broiler production has recently increased. Our goals were to evaluate the effects of dietary modification, using phytase and reduced non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) supplementation, on P speciation in broiler litters, changes in litter P forms(More)
Diet modification to decrease phosphorus (P) concentration in animal feeds and manures can reduce surpluses of manure P in areas of intensive animal production. We generated turkey and broiler litters from two and three flock trials, respectively, using diets that ranged from "high" to "low" in non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) and some of which contained feed(More)
While alum amendments have shown to be effective in lowering water-soluble phosphate levels in poultry litter, the mechanism by which this occurs is not fully known. To determine the solid-state speciation of phosphate in litter samples, experiments were conducted with X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. XANES analysis reveals that,(More)
A viable and cost-effective approach to managing P on dairy farms is to minimize excess P in diets, which in turn leads to less excretion of P in manure without impairing animal performance. A questionnaire survey was conducted, coupled with on-site feed and fecal sample collection and analysis on dairy farms in New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland,(More)
Effective manure management to efficiently utilize organic wastes without causing environmental degradation requires a clear understanding of the transformation of P forms from diet to manure. Thus, the objective of this study was to establish quantitative relationships between P forms in diets, feces, and manures collected from U.S. Northeastern and(More)
Amending poultry litter (PL) with aluminum sulfate (alum) has proven to be effective in reducing water-soluble phosphorus (P) in the litter and in runoff from fields that have received PL applications; it has therefore been suggested as a best management practice. Although its effectiveness has been demonstrated on a macroscopic scale in the field, little(More)
Phosphorus losses in runoff from application of manures and biosolids to agricultural land are implicated in the degradation of water quality in the Chesapeake and Delaware Inland Bays. We conducted an incubation study to determine the relative P solubility and bioavailability, referred to as P source coefficients (PSCs), for organic P sources, which are(More)
Laws mandating phosphorus (P)-based nutrient management plans have been passed in several U.S. Mid-Atlantic states. Biosolids (sewage sludge) are frequently applied to agricultural land and in this study we evaluated how biosolids treatment processes and biosolids P tests were related to P behavior in biosolids-amended soils. Eight biosolids generated by(More)