James T. Murphy

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In contrast to those for human females, observational cycle data available for chimpanzees suggest that menstrual cycling, and thus reproductive potential, continues until near death. This study documents age-related changes in estrous cycling and hormone profiles in 14 female chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) ranging in age from 31 to 50 y. Estrous data were(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency of positive blood cultures obtained from adult patients with potential occult bacteremia released from an urban ED and how often these positive cultures alter the subsequent patient course or management. METHODS This retrospective case series study was conducted at the ED of a large, urban teaching hospital. The study(More)
RATIONALE Mortality rates from rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD) are largely unknown. OBJECTIVES We sought to determine mortality rates from rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease in the United States from 1988 through 2004. METHODS Using data from the National Center for Health Statistics, we(More)
Many captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are subjectively considered to be overweight or obese. However, discussions of obesity in chimpanzees are rare in the literature, despite the acknowledged problem. No study to date has systematically examined obesity in captive chimpanzees. This project develops guidelines for defining obesity in captive(More)
Captive animals trained to cooperate with routine medical procedures, such as injections, may experience less aggression and anxiety than those forced to comply through the use of restraints. The authors used positive reinforcement training to teach captive chimpanzees to present a body part for anesthetic injection and determined the time investment(More)
Heart disease is common in both humans and chimpanzees, manifesting typically as sudden cardiac arrest or progressive heart failure. Surprisingly, although chimpanzees are our closest evolutionary relatives, the major cause of heart disease is different in the two species. Histopathology data of affected chimpanzee hearts from two primate centers, and(More)
Simulations were carried out to analyze a promising new antimicrobial treatment strategy for targeting antibiotic-resistant bacteria called the \beta-lactamase-dependent prodrug delivery system. In this system, the antibacterial drugs are delivered as inactive precursors that only become activated after contact with an enzyme characteristic of many species(More)
A number of age-related changes in physiological functions have been identified in macaques and humans. However, few studies have examined physiological aging in chimpanzees, despite the increasing age of the chimpanzee population. We documented age-related changes in seven hematology and 17 clinical chemistry parameters in 49 adult chimpanzees (17 males,(More)
An agent-based model of bacteria-antibiotic interactions has been developed that incorporates the antibiotic-resistance mechanisms of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The model, called the Micro-Gen Bacterial Simulator, uses information about the cell biology of bacteria to produce global information about population growth in different(More)
In primates, the primary source of vitamin D is synthesis in the skin through sun exposure. Decreased sun exposure may lead to vitamin D deficiency and consequently other health issues. In laboratory, sanctuary, and zoo settings, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) may be housed indoors for prolonged periods of time without regular exposure to unfiltered(More)