James T. Howlett

Learn More
The growth of the Sabin strain of type 3 poliovirus is reduced at high temperatures compared to that of its virulent precursor strain Leon. Recombinant viruses have been generated from infectious cDNA clones and demonstrate that the temperature-sensitive (ts) phenotype is mainly attributable to a difference in residue 91 of the virion protein VP3.(More)
Isolates of type 3 poliovirus from vaccine-recipients were characterized in terms of virulence, sensitivity of growth to high temperatures, and differences in genome structure from the Sabin type 3 vaccine strain. These included point mutations in the region of the genome coding for the structural proteins and in the 5' noncoding region, and the presence of(More)
12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12[S]-HETE) and 13(S)-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (13[S]-HODE), lipoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid and linoleic acid, respectively, previously have been suggested to regulate tumor cell adhesion to endothelium during metastasis. Adhesion of rat Walker carcinosarcoma (W256) cells to a rat endothelial cell(More)
Monoclonal antibody panels developed to differentiate vaccine-derived and wild-type strains of polio-viruses were applied to isolates from cases of paralytic poliomyelitis, non-paralytic poliomyelitis, and healthy excreters of poliovirus from Poland. All isolates from poliomyelitis cases were shown to be vaccine-derived, as were most other strains. However,(More)
A simple dot blot enzyme immunoassay was developed to screen enrichment broth cultures for the presence of Salmonella. This unique system utilizes macroporous polyester cloth (Polymacron) with an inexpensive hemoglobin coating to provide a high-affinity adsorbent for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigens in test samples. Bound LPS antigens are then detected(More)
Chimeric polioviruses have been prepared in which part of the antigenic site 1-encoding sequence of the Sabin strain of type 1 poliovirus has been replaced by sequences based on those found in the homologous region of the Sabin type 3 strain. The chimeras were analysed for their reaction with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies raised against type 1 and(More)
INTRODUCTION Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is caused by autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing β cells in the pancreatic islets, leading to insulinopenia and hyperglycaemia. Genetic analyses indicate that alterations of the interleukin-2 (IL-2) pathway mediating immune activation and tolerance predispose to T1D, specifically the polymorphic expression of(More)
The use of organ cultures of mouse ear skin for examining mechanisms of stratum corneum shedding has been investigated. The formation and loss of stratum corneum cells was assessed by electron microscopic autoradiography and from counts of stratum corneum cell layers taken from sections of plastic-embedded specimens. Using media supplemented with cortisone,(More)