This paper presents preliminary findings and is being distributed to economists and other interested readers solely to stimulate discussion and elicit comments. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and are not necessarily reflective of views at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York or the Federal Reserve System. Any errors or omissions… (More)
4-Aminopyridine (4-AP) is a K+ channel blocking agent that enhances nerve conduction through areas of demyelination by prolonging the duration of the action potential and increasing the safety factor for conduction. We have investigated the effects of 4-AP (24 mg total dose-intravenous) in 6 patients with spinal cord injury (3 complete, 3 incomplete) with… (More)
How computer scientists can empower journalists, democracy's watchdogs, in the production of news in the public interest.
The general anesthetic urethane (ethyl carbamate) is widely used in electrophysiological in vivo experiments. However, its pharmacological effects are poorly understood. Here, the effects of urethane on in vitro contractile responses of the rat thoracic aortic ring preparation were investigated. Bath application of 5-HT produced a concentration-dependent… (More)
NOTE: International Finance Discussion Papers are preliminary materials circulated to stimulate discussion and critical comment. References in publications to International Finance Discussion Papers (other than an acknowledgment that the writer has had access to unpublished material) should be cleared Abstract: An equilibrium model is used to assess the… (More)
BACKGROUND Ultrasound elasticity imaging provides biomechanical and elastic properties of vascular tissue, with the potential to distinguish between tissue motion and tissue strain. To validate the ability of ultrasound elasticity imaging to predict structurally defined physical changes in tissue, strain measurement patterns during angioplasty in four… (More)
Silvopasture systems combine trees, forage, and livestock in a variety of different species and management regimes, depending on the biophysical, economic, cultural, and market factors in a region. We describe and compare actual farm practices and current research trials of silvopastoral systems in eight regions within seven countries of the world: Misiones… (More)
and Alen Vukic for their comments. The views expressed herein are those of the author and not necessarily those of the UBS Bank, which does not take on any responsibility about the contents and the opinions expressed in this paper.
This paper studies robust inference for linear panel models with fixed effects in the presence of heteroskedasticity and spatiotemporal dependence of unknown forms. We propose a bivariate kernel covariance estimator, which is flexible to nest existing estimators as special cases with certain choices of bandwidths. For distributional approximations, we… (More)