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OBJECTIVE To evaluate the role of current direction on the after-effects of Theta Burst Stimulation (TBS) delivered with a biphasic Magstim 200(2) stimulator. METHODS Inhibitory (cTBS) and excitatory TBS (iTBS) were delivered over the motor cortex of healthy individuals using reversed and standard current orientations (initial current in the(More)
Recent studies have suggested that there may be functional and structural changes in the cerebellum of patients with adult onset primary focal dystonia. The aim of this study was to establish whether there is any neurophysiological indicator of abnormal cerebellar function, using the classic eyeblink conditioning paradigm. This paradigm at short intervals(More)
Theta burst stimulation (TBS) protocols of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) have after-effects on excitability of motor areas thought to be due to LTP- and LTD-like processes at cortical synapses. The present experiments ask whether, despite the low intensities of stimulation used and the anatomy of the posterior fossa, TBS can also(More)
Previous results using paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) have suggested that the excitability of transcallosal (TC) connections between the hand areas of the two motor cortices is modulated by intracortical inhibitory circuits in the same way as corticospinal tract (CTS) projections to spinal motoneurons. Here we describe two further(More)
Inappropriate antibiotic use contributes to antimicrobial resistance. Multi-faceted antimicrobial stewardship programmes (ASPs) are recommended for sustainable changes in prescribing practices. A multi-disciplinary ASP was established in October 2008 and piloted in the Departments of General Surgery, Renal Medicine and Endocrinology sequentially. To improve(More)
Primary dystonia is thought to be a disorder of the basal ganglia because the symptoms resemble those of patients who have anatomical lesions in the same regions of the brain (secondary dystonia). However, these two groups of patients respond differently to therapy suggesting differences in pathophysiological mechanisms. Pathophysiological deficits in(More)
Contralesional dorsal premotor cortex (cPMd) may support residual motor function following stroke. We performed two complementary experiments to explore how cPMd might perform this role in a group of chronic human stroke patients. First, we used paired-coil transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to establish the physiological influence of cPMd on(More)
It has been 50 years since the first patients with tardive dyskinesia (TD) were described, but the pathophysiology is only partially understood and effective treatments have remained elusive. Newer atypical antipsychotics with less nonspecific activity at dopamine receptors have not heralded the end of tardive dyskinesia and merely highlight the incomplete(More)
Eyeblink classical conditioning (EBCC) is a cerebellum-dependent paradigm of associative motor learning, and abnormal EBCC is a neurophysiological indicator of cerebellar dysfunction. We have previously demonstrated impaired EBCC in patients with primary dystonia, but it remains uncertain if this represents actual cerebellar pathology or reflects a(More)