Learn More
Recent studies have suggested that there may be functional and structural changes in the cerebellum of patients with adult onset primary focal dystonia. The aim of this study was to establish whether there is any neurophysiological indicator of abnormal cerebellar function, using the classic eyeblink conditioning paradigm. This paradigm at short intervals(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the role of current direction on the after-effects of Theta Burst Stimulation (TBS) delivered with a biphasic Magstim 200(2) stimulator. METHODS Inhibitory (cTBS) and excitatory TBS (iTBS) were delivered over the motor cortex of healthy individuals using reversed and standard current orientations (initial current in the(More)
Previous results using paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) have suggested that the excitability of transcallosal (TC) connections between the hand areas of the two motor cortices is modulated by intracortical inhibitory circuits in the same way as corticospinal tract (CTS) projections to spinal motoneurons. Here we describe two further(More)
Theta burst stimulation (TBS) protocols of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) have after-effects on excitability of motor areas thought to be due to LTP- and LTD-like processes at cortical synapses. The present experiments ask whether, despite the low intensities of stimulation used and the anatomy of the posterior fossa, TBS can also(More)
Eyeblink classical conditioning (EBCC) is a cerebellum-dependent paradigm of associative motor learning, and abnormal EBCC is a neurophysiological indicator of cerebellar dysfunction. We have previously demonstrated impaired EBCC in patients with primary dystonia, but it remains uncertain if this represents actual cerebellar pathology or reflects a(More)
Primary dystonia is thought to be a disorder of the basal ganglia because the symptoms resemble those of patients who have anatomical lesions in the same regions of the brain (secondary dystonia). However, these two groups of patients respond differently to therapy suggesting differences in pathophysiological mechanisms. Pathophysiological deficits in(More)
BACKGROUND Major advances during the past 50 years highlight the immense potential for restoration of function after neural injury, even in the damaged adult human brain. Yet, the translation of these advances into clinically useful treatments is painstakingly slow. OBJECTIVE Here, we consider why the traditional model of a "translational research(More)
Dopamine (DA) is a neurotransmitter with an important influence on learning and memory, which is thought to be due to its modulatory effect on plasticity at central synapses, which in turn depends on activation of D1 and D2 receptors. Methods of brain stimulation (transcranial direct current stimulation, tDCS; paired associative stimulation, PAS) lead to(More)
BACKGROUND Psychogenic blepharospasm is difficult to distinguish clinically from benign essential blepharospasm (BEB). The blink reflex recovery cycle measures the excitability of human brainstem interneurons and is abnormal in BEB. We wished to study the blink reflex recovery cycle in patients with atypical (presumed psychogenic) blepharospasm (AB). (More)