James T. Enns

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Advances in neuroscience implicate reentrant signaling as the predominant form of communication between brain areas. This principle was used in a series of masking experiments that defy explanation by feed-forward theories. The masking occurs when a brief display of target plus mask is continued with the mask alone. Two masking processes were found: an(More)
Identification of the second of two targets is impaired if it is presented less than about 500 ms after the first. Theoretical accounts of this second-target deficit, known as attentional blink (AB), have relied on some form of limited attentional resource that is allocated to the leading target at the expense of the trailing target. Three experiments in(More)
The negative compatibility effect (NCE) is the surprising result that visual targets that follow a brief prime stimulus and a mask can be identified more rapidly when they are opposite rather than identical to the prime. In a recent article in this journal, S. T. Klapp and L. B. Hinkley (2002) proposed that this reflected a competition between inhibitory(More)
An important problem in the area of computer graphics is the visualization of large, complex information spaces. Datasets of this type have grown rapidly in recent years, both in number and in size. Images of the data stored in these collections must support rapid and accurate exploration and analysis. This article presents a method for constructing(More)
Experiments are presented showing that visual search for Mueller-Lyer stimuli is based on complete configurations rather than component segments. Segments easily detected in isolation were difficult to detect when embedded in a configuration, indicating preemption by low-level groups. This preemption--which caused stimulus components to become inaccessible(More)
A new method is presented for performing rapid and accurate numerical estimation. The method is derived from an area of human cognitive psychology called preattentive processing. Preattentive processing refers to an initial organization of the visual field based on cognitive operations believed to be rapid, automatic, and spatially parallel. Examples of(More)
A fundamental goal of visualization is to produce images of data that support visual analysis, exploration, and discovery of novel insights. An important consideration during visualization design is the role of human visual perception. How we "see” details in an image can directly impact a viewer's efficiency and effectiveness. This paper surveys(More)
Research on the perception of texture gradients has relied heavily on the subjective reports of observers engaged in free-viewing. We asked whether these findings generalized to speeded performance. Experiment 1 showed that an important aspect of subjective perception--size-constancy scaling with perceived distance--also predicted the speed of pop-out(More)