James T. Chang

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Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), in combination with CRISPR associated (cas) genes, constitute CRISPR-Cas bacterial adaptive immune systems. To generate immunity, these systems acquire short sequences of nucleic acids from foreign invaders and incorporate these into their CRISPR arrays as spacers. This adaptation process(More)
The CRISPR-Cas prokaryotic 'adaptive immune systems' represent a sophisticated defence strategy providing bacteria and archaea with protection from invading genetic elements, such as bacteriophages or plasmids. Despite intensive research into their mechanism and application, how CRISPR-Cas systems are regulated is less clear, and nothing is known about the(More)
In prokaryotes, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and their associated (Cas) proteins constitute a defence system against bacteriophages and plasmids. CRISPR/Cas systems acquire short spacer sequences from foreign genetic elements and incorporate these into their CRISPR arrays, generating a memory of past invaders. Defence(More)
Phages are the most abundant biological entities on earth and pose a constant challenge to their bacterial hosts. Thus, bacteria have evolved numerous 'innate' mechanisms of defense against phage, such as abortive infection or restriction/modification systems. In contrast, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) systems(More)
Culex pipiens is the mosquito that vectors West Nile Virus and other human-pathogenic flavivruses in North America. In response to shortened day length and lower temperatures, female Cx. pipiense prepares for the diapause by actively feeding on carbohydrates to increase the biosynthesis of glycogen and lipid to store energy for overwintering. The effect of(More)
Amphomycin and MX-2401 are cyclic lipopeptides exhibiting bactericidal activities against Gram-positive pathogens. Amphomycin and MX-2401 share structural similarities with daptomycin, but unlike daptomycin they do not target bacterial membrane. In this study, we investigate in vivo modes of action for amphomycin and MX-2401 in intact whole cells of(More)
To obtain an insight to high humidity-caused friction modulation in brake pad-rotor interface, the adhesion phenomenon due to a liquid bridge is simulated using an advanced particle method by varying the shearing speed of the interface. The method, called generalized interpolation material point for fluid-solid interactions (GIMP-FSI), was recently(More)
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