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Bovine Kir7.1 clones were obtained from a retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)-subtracted cDNA library. Human RPE cDNA library screening resulted in clones encoding full-length human Kir7.1. Northern blot analysis indicated that bovine Kir7.1 is highly expressed in the RPE. Human Kir7.1 channels were expressed in Xenopus oocytes and studied using the(More)
Mutations in the Drosophila rdgB gene, which encodes a transmembrane phosphatidylinositol transfer protein (PITP), cause a light-enhanced retinal degeneration. Cloning of mammalian rdgB orthologs (mrdgB) reveal predicted proteins that are 39% identical to rdgB, with highest homology in the N-terminal PITP domain (62%) and in a region near the C terminus(More)
The Wnt/frizzled cell signaling pathway has been implicated in the determination of polarity in a number of systems, including the Drosophila retina. The vertebrate retina develops from an undifferentiated neuroepithelium into an organized and laminated structure that demonstrates a high degree of polarity at both the tissue and cellular levels. In the(More)
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), in combination with CRISPR associated (cas) genes, constitute CRISPR-Cas bacterial adaptive immune systems. To generate immunity, these systems acquire short sequences of nucleic acids from foreign invaders and incorporate these into their CRISPR arrays as spacers. This adaptation process(More)
Retinoids play a critical role in vision, as well as in development and cellular differentiation. beta,beta-Carotene-15,15'-dioxygenase (Bcdo), the enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of beta,beta-carotene into two retinal molecules, plays an important role in retinoid synthesis. We report here the first cloning of a mammalian Bcdo. Human BCDO(More)
Phages are the most abundant biological entities on earth and pose a constant challenge to their bacterial hosts. Thus, bacteria have evolved numerous 'innate' mechanisms of defense against phage, such as abortive infection or restriction/modification systems. In contrast, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) systems(More)
In prokaryotes, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and their associated (Cas) proteins constitute a defence system against bacteriophages and plasmids. CRISPR/Cas systems acquire short spacer sequences from foreign genetic elements and incorporate these into their CRISPR arrays, generating a memory of past invaders. Defence(More)
The CRISPR-Cas prokaryotic 'adaptive immune systems' represent a sophisticated defence strategy providing bacteria and archaea with protection from invading genetic elements, such as bacteriophages or plasmids. Despite intensive research into their mechanism and application, how CRISPR-Cas systems are regulated is less clear, and nothing is known about the(More)
PURPOSE To characterize orthologous human and murine cDNAs isolated through separate screens designed to identify genes expressed preferentially in retina. METHODS By screening bovine, murine, and human retinal cDNA libraries, human UNC-119 clones of two varieties and a murine cDNA clone corresponding to the most abundant human transcript were isolated.(More)
PURPOSE To determine the relative level and localization of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-4 mRNA in the retina and retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) under normal and pathologic conditions, to seek clues regarding possible functions. METHODS Clones isolated from an RPE cDNA library were sequenced and used as probes for northern blot analysis. Expression(More)
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