James Stinear

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Implicit and explicit memory systems for motor skills compete with each other during and after motor practice. Primary motor cortex (M1) is known to be engaged during implicit motor learning, while dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) is critical for explicit learning. To elucidate the neural substrates underlying the interaction between implicit and explicit(More)
Magnetic stimulation of human primary motor cortex (M1) paired with electrical stimulation of a peripheral motor nerve has been used to produce a lasting modulation of corticomotor (CM) excitability. This 'paired associative stimulation' (PAS) protocol has been used to induce bidirectional changes in excitability in upper limb CM pathways. The present study(More)
The recovery of coordinated motor function after stroke onset has been associated with the practice of upper limb movements that required the activation of homologous muscles. This pilot study investigated whether repetitive bimanual coordinated movements enhanced upper limb corticomotor (CM) excitability and motor function poststroke. Patients practiced(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess corticomotor (CM) excitability of the antagonist biceps brachii (BB) post-stroke in preparation for pronator contraction. In healthy subjects, we previously demonstrated that prior to pronator contraction CM excitability of the antagonist BB was suppressed. METHODS Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to assess(More)
Subjects performed a bimanual circle-tracing task in time with an auditory metronome while restricted to moving with either proximal or distal musculature of the upper limb. Patterns were made in symmetric or asymmetric directions with respect to the midline. Symmetric patterns were more stable than asymmetric patterns. In response to a visual stimulus,(More)
The brain is a plastic organ with a capability to reorganize in response to behavior and/or injury. Following injury to the motor cortex or emergent corticospinal pathways, recovery of function depends on the capacity of surviving anatomical resources to recover and repair in response to task-specific training. One such area implicated in poststroke(More)
Terminating a voluntary muscle contraction is an important aspect of motor control, and yet, its neurophysiology is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the role of short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) by comparing SICIs during relaxation from a power grip versus during a sustained power grip at the matching muscle activity level.(More)
Research into mechanisms for inducing long-lasting increases in human motor system excitability holds great promise for two prime reasons. First, the research may provide a better understanding of the role of cortex in human movement. Second, an induced increase in the excitability of the motor system during walking re-training following neural injury may(More)
The phasic modulation of wrist flexor corticomotor disinhibition has previously been demonstrated during the flexion phase of rhythmical passive flexion-extension of the human wrist. Here we ask if rhythmical bimanual flexion-extension movements of the wrists of neurologically intact subjects, modulate inhibitory activity in the motor cortex. In the first(More)
What are the neuroplastic mechanisms that allow some stroke patients to regain high-quality control of their paretic leg, when others do not? One theory implicates ipsilateral corticospinal pathways projecting from the non-lesioned hemisphere. We devised a new transcranial magnetic stimulation protocol to identify ipsilateral corticospinal tract(More)