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The cerebellum has been proposed to be a crucial component in the state estimation process that combines information from motor efferent and sensory afferent signals to produce a representation of the current state of the motor system. Such a state estimate of the moving human arm would be expected to be used when the arm is rapidly and skillfully reaching(More)
Human movement performance is subject to interference if the performer simultaneously observes an incongruent action. It has been proposed that this phenomenon is due to motor contagion during simultaneous movement performance-observation, with coactivation of shared action performance and action observation circuitry in the premotor cortex. The present(More)
Movement interference occurs when concurrently observing and executing incompatible actions and is believed to be due to co-activation of conflicting populations of mirror neurons. It has also been suggested that mirror neurons contribute towards the imitation of observed actions. However, the exact neural substrate of imitation may depend on task demands:(More)
Recent theoretical work has suggested that internal predictive signals are used for motor control and coordination. The predictive signal - proposed to be the output of a forward model - would be a sensory representation of action. Hence, these sensory representations could potentially influence other sensory processes. We report here how performance of(More)
Everyday behaviour involves a trade-off between planned actions and reaction to environmental events. Evidence from neurophysiology, neurology and functional brain imaging suggests different neural bases for the control of different movement types. Here we develop a behavioural paradigm to test movement dynamics for intentional versus reaction movements and(More)
Electrophysiological studies in monkeys and neuroimaging studies of humans have shown that action execution and action observation share neural processing sites traditionally thought to be responsible for motor execution alone. This experiment investigates a behavioral phenomenon in which a visual discrimination task is influenced by concurrent motor(More)
BACKGROUND Gastrointestinal side effects are particularly common with clozapine and occur with other antipsychotics, ranging from mild constipation to fatal bowel obstruction and/or ischemia. While this adverse-effect spectrum has been attributed to 'gastrointestinal hypomotility', gastrointestinal transit times in antipsychotic-treated patients have not(More)
Potentiation of the startle blink reflex shortly after picture onset has only been reported in a sample of high animal-fear participants during fear-evoking stimuli. The experiment tested the emotional specificity of startle reflex modification at early (300 ms) and late (2-5 s) stages of picture viewing in an unselected sample (n=55). Participants viewed(More)
This chapter reviews evidence regarding the predictive relationship between execution of actions and their effect on performance of cognitive tasks based on processing visual feedback. The concept of forward modeling of action refers to a process whereby simulated or executed actions evoke a predictive model of the future state and position of the effector.(More)