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A genetic contribution to susceptibility is well established in multiple sclerosis (MS) and 57 associated genetic loci have been identified. We have undertaken a meta-analysis of familial risk studies with the aims of providing definitive figures for risks to relatives, performing a segregation analysis and estimating the proportion of the overall genetic(More)
OBJECTIVE Low past sun exposure, fair skin type, and polymorphisms of the MC1R gene have been associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) risk. We aimed to investigate the interplay between melanocortin 1 receptor gene variants, red hair/fair skin phenotype, and past environmental sun exposure in MS. METHODS Population-based case-control study in Tasmania,(More)
In this review, the evidence for the leading environmental and lifestyle factors thought to play a role in multiple sclerosis (MS) onset, including Epstein-Barr virus, sun exposure or vitamin D, and smoking, will be discussed. The Causal Pie Model is used as a conceptual framework to understand the causation. Given that no single factor leads to the(More)
BACKGROUND The influence of APOE allelic heterogeneity on multiple sclerosis (MS) disease severity has been reported in multiple datasets with conflicting results. Several studies have reported an unfavorable association of APOE epsilon4 with more severe clinical disease course while, in contrast, APOE epsilon2 has been associated with a more benign disease(More)
The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability and describe the correlates of bone marrow lesions in knee subchondral bone. A sibpair design was used. T2- and T1-weighted MRI scans were performed on the right knee to assess bone marrow lesions at lateral tibia and femora and medial tibia and femora, as well as chondral defects. A radiograph was(More)
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