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BACKGROUND Until now, polymyxin resistance has involved chromosomal mutations but has never been reported via horizontal gene transfer. During a routine surveillance project on antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli from food animals in China, a major increase of colistin resistance was observed. When an E coli strain, SHP45, possessing(More)
The structure of the L1 metallo-beta-lactamase from the opportunistic pathogen Stenotrophomonas maltophilia has been determined at 1.7 A resolution by the multiwavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) approach exploiting both the intrinsic binuclear zinc centre and incorporated selenomethionine residues. L1 is unique amongst all known beta-lactamases in that(More)
Relaxation rates for folding and unfolding of two proteins have been measured over a range of denaturant concentrations to examine the reaction pathways leading to the late transition state. The proteins were chosen for their marked differences in both kinetic and structural properties. Results for the N-terminal domain of phosophoglycerate kinase (N-PGK),(More)
(+/-)-UB-165 (1) is a potent neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) ligand, which displays functional selectivity between nAChR subtypes. Using UB-165 as a lead structure, two classes of racemic ligands were synthesized and assessed in binding assays for three major nAChR subtypes (alpha4beta2, alpha3beta4, and alpha7). The first class of(More)
Smooth muscle calponin is a multifunctional, thin filament-associated protein whose expression is restricted to smooth muscle cell lineages in developing and postnatal tissues. Although the physiology of smooth muscle calponin has been studied extensively, the cis-elements governing its restricted pattern of expression have yet to be identified. Here we(More)
The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (pRb) regulates the cell cycle, facilitates differentiation, and restrains apoptosis. Furthermore, dysfunctional pRb is thought to be involved in the development of most human malignancies. Many of the functions of pRb are mediated by its regulation of the E2F transcription factors. To understand the structural(More)
Metallo-beta-lactamases are broad-spectrum zinc enzymes, able to inactivate most clinically useful beta-lactam antibiotics. Their structural and functional diversity has thus far limited the understanding of their catalytic mechanism, therefore thwarting the rational design of a common inhibitor. On the basis of the recent availability of structures of(More)
Metallo-beta-lactamases (mbetals) confer broad-spectrum resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics upon host bacteria and escape the action of existing beta-lactamase inhibitors. SPM-1 is a recently discovered mbetal that is distinguished from related enzymes by possession of a substantial central insertion and by sequence variation at positions that maintain(More)
The synthesis and beta-lactamase inhibitory activity of four 6-(mercaptomethyl)penicillinates and the four corresponding 6-(hydroxymethyl)penicillinates are described. These penicillins include both C6 stereoisomers as well as the sulfide and sulfone oxidation states of the penam thiazolidine sulfur. All compounds were evaluated as inhibitors of(More)
The khmer package is a freely available software library for working efficiently with fixed length DNA words, or k-mers. khmer provides implementations of a probabilistic k-mer counting data structure, a compressible De Bruijn graph representation, De Bruijn graph partitioning, and digital normalization. khmer is implemented in C++ and Python, and is freely(More)