James Skelton

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Ecological theory and observational evidence suggest that symbiotic interactions such as cleaning symbioses can shift from mutualism to parasitism. However, field experimental evidence documenting these shifts has never been reported for a cleaning symbiosis. Here, we demonstrate shifts in a freshwater cleaning symbiosis in a system involving crayfish and(More)
Symbiont community assembly is driven by host-symbiont and symbiont-symbiont interactions. The effects that symbionts exert on their hosts are often context-dependent, and existing theoretical frameworks of symbiont community assembly do not consider the implications of variable outcomes to assembly processes. We hypothesized that symbiont-symbiont(More)
Direct horizontal transmission of pathogenic and mutualistic symbionts has profound consequences for host and symbiont fitness alike. While the importance of contact rates for transmission is widely recognized, the processes that underlie variation in transmission during contact are rarely considered. Here, we took a symbiont's perspective of transmission(More)
The vital roles that sponges play in marine habitats are well-known. However, sponges inhabiting freshwaters have been largely ignored despite having widespread distributions and often high local abundances. We used natural abundance stable isotope signatures of carbon and nitrogen (δ 13C and δ 15N) to infer the primary food source of the cosmopolitan(More)
Animal fitness is influenced by diverse assemblages of internal and external symbionts. These assemblages often change throughout host ontogeny, but the mechanisms that underlie these changes and their consequences for host fitness are seldom revealed. Here we examine a cleaning symbiosis between crayfish and an assemblage of ectosymbiotic branchiobdellidan(More)
Lotic environments contain a disproportionate amount of biodiversity given their relatively small proportion of the worldwide landscape. We conducted a systematic literature search of research directed towards understanding factors that influence biodiversity in lotic habitats, published in 31 major ecological and freshwater science journals from 1981 to(More)
In the isolated chick retina, the propagation velocity of Spreading Depression (SD) was approximately doubled and the frequency of spontaneous waves was substantially increased with solutions bubbled with 5% CO2 instead of air, at constant pH (7.5-7.6). There was no effect on SD of raised pO2. Large changes of pH (to 6.4 and 9.4) produced, respectively,(More)
A study of the effects of altered calcium and magnesium levels on the capacities of Acetabularia plants to elongate and to form whorls or caps revealed sharp transitions of regenerative state over small concentration changes of external calcium at both reduced and elevated levels. Cobalt and lanthanum, which interfere with calcium fluxes across membranes,(More)
Studies of symbioses have traditionally focused on explaining one-to-one interactions between organisms. In reality, symbioses are often much more dynamic. They can involve many interacting members, and change depending on context. In studies of the ambrosia symbiosis-the mutualism between wood borer beetles and fungi-two variables have introduced(More)
Metacommunity ecology has rapidly become a dominant framework through which ecologists understand the natural world. Unfortunately, persistent misunderstandings regarding metacommunity theory and the methods for evaluating hypotheses based on the theory are common in the ecological literature. Since its beginnings, four major paradigms—species sorting, mass(More)