James Sandy

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Lipoyl cofactors are essential for living organisms and are produced by the insertion of two sulfur atoms into the relatively unreactive C-H bonds of an octanoyl substrate. This reaction requires lipoyl synthase, a member of the radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) enzyme superfamily. In the present study, we solved crystal structures of lipoyl synthase with(More)
TOR signaling pathway regulator-like (TIPRL) is a regulatory protein which inhibits the catalytic subunits of Type 2A phosphatases. Several cellular contexts have been proposed for TIPRL, such as regulation of mTOR signaling, inhibition of apoptosis and biogenesis and recycling of PP2A, however, the underlying molecular mechanism is still poorly understood.(More)
Dehydration may change the crystal lattice and affect the mosaicity, resolution and quality of X-ray diffraction data. A dehydrating environment can be generated around a crystal in several ways with various degrees of precision and complexity. This study uses a high-precision crystal humidifier/dehumidifier to provide an airstream of known relative(More)
Examples are shown of protein crystallization in, and data collection from, solutions sandwiched between thin polymer films using vapour-diffusion and batch methods. The crystallization platform is optimal for both visualization and in situ data collection, with the need for traditional harvesting being eliminated. In wells constructed from the thinnest(More)
The hydration state of macromolecular crystals often affects their overall order and, ultimately, the quality of the X-ray diffraction pattern that they produce. Post-crystallization techniques that alter the solvent content of a crystal may induce rearrangement within the three-dimensional array making up the crystal, possibly resulting in more ordered(More)
Cellulases catalyze the hydrolysis of cellulose, the major constituent of plant biomass and the most abundant organic polymer on earth. Cellulases are modular enzymes containing catalytic domains connected, via linker sequences, to noncatalytic carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs). A putative modular endo-β-1,4-glucanase (BhCel5B) is encoded at locus BH0603(More)
Pruritus is an important symptom in psoriasis with no targeted treatment. Tropomyosin-receptor kinase A (TrkA) is associated with pruritus and psoriatic plaque formation. We report the efficacy of a TrkA inhibitor, CT327, on pruritus in psoriasis. A randomised, double-blind, vehicle-controlled Phase 2b clinical trial was conducted in 160 subjects. No effect(More)
Macromolecular crystallography (MX) is the most powerful technique available to structural biologists to visualize in atomic detail the macromolecular machinery of the cell. Since the emergence of structural genomics initiatives, significant advances have been made in all key steps of the structure determination process. In particular, third-generation(More)
The saturable nature of the clearance of soluble nickel compounds from the lung was studied by repeated exposures of rats to respirable submicron-size nickel aerosols. Using Michaelis-Menten type kinetics for removal of nickel lung burdens and a constant rate of deposition, the lung nickel burdens were simulated by computer. The computer simulation was used(More)
A number of anaerobic microorganisms produce multi-modular, multi-enzyme complexes termed cellulosomes. These extracellular macromolecular nanomachines are designed for the efficient degradation of plant cell-wall carbohydrates to smaller sugars that are subsequently used as a source of carbon and energy. Cellulolytic strains from the rumens of mammals,(More)
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