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Acute and chronic effects of exercise on leptin levels in humans.—The acute (single bout of exercise) and chronic (exercise training) effects of exercise on plasma leptin were investigated in 97 sedentary adult men (n 5 51) and women (n 5 46) participating in the HERITAGE Family Study. Exercise training consisted of a standardized 20-wk endurance training(More)
Abdominal obesity is associated with numerous metabolic alterations, such as hypertriglyceridemia and low levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. However, compared with abdominally obese white individuals, abdominally obese black individuals have been characterized by higher plasma HDL cholesterol levels, suggesting that the impact of(More)
BACKGROUND Individuals differ in the response to regular exercise. Whether there are people who experience adverse changes in cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors has never been addressed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS An adverse response is defined as an exercise-induced change that worsens a risk factor beyond measurement error and expected(More)
A role for dopamine neurotransmission in the regulation of motor activity and reinforcement of behavior is supported by considerable evidence. We studied the association between a marker in the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) and physical activity level in two cohorts. A first cohort consisted of 721 participants from 161 families of the Quebec Family(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of a 20-week endurance training program in healthy, previously sedentary participants on measures derived from an intravenous glucose tolerance test (i.v.GTT). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS An i.v.GTT was performed before and after a standardized training program in 316 women and 280 men (173 blacks and 423 whites).(More)
Agenome-wide linkage scan was performed for genes affecting submaximal exercise systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in the sedentary state and their responses to a standardized endurance training program. A total of 344 polymorphic markers were used, and 344 pairs of siblings from 99 white nuclear families and 102 sibling pairs(More)
Effects of age, sex, race, and initial fitness on training responses of maximal O(2) uptake (VO(2 max)) are unclear. Data were available on 435 whites and 198 blacks (287 men and 346 women), aged 17-65 yr, before and after standardized cycle ergometer training. Individual responses varied widely, but VO(2 max) increased significantly for all groups.(More)
A genome-wide linkage scan for endurance training-induced changes in submaximal exercise stroke volume (DeltaSV50) in the HERITAGE Family Study revealed two chromosomal regions (2q31-q32 and 10p11.2) with at least suggestive evidence of linkage among white families. Here we report a further characterization of the quantitative trait locus (QTL) in(More)
Contributions of the DNA sequence variation at the endothelin 1 locus to the risk of hypertension and to endurance training-induced changes in blood pressure were investigated in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study and the Health, Risk Factors, Exercise Training and Genetics Family Study cohorts. We identified 586 normotensive control subjects and 607(More)
It has been suggested that genetic variation in the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene is associated with physical performance. We studied the association between the ACE insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphism and several fitness phenotypes measured before and after 20 wk of a standardized endurance training program in sedentary Caucasian (n = 476)(More)