James S. Foulke

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We report, to our knowledge, the first HIV type 1 (HIV-1) transgenic (Tg) rat. Expression of the transgene, consisting of an HIV-1 provirus with a functional deletion of gag and pol, is regulated by the viral long terminal repeat. Spliced and unspliced viral transcripts were expressed in lymph nodes, thymus, liver, kidney, and spleen, suggesting that Tat(More)
Infection with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), also known as Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus, is necessary for the development of KS. The HHV-8 lytic-phase gene ORF74 is related to G protein-coupled receptors, particularly interleukin-8 (IL-8) receptors. ORF74 activates the inositol phosphate/phospholipase C pathway and the downstream(More)
The tat, rev, vpu, and env genes from the monocytotropic CCR5-dependent HIV-1 Ba-L isolate were substituted for homologous simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) sequences in the SIV genome. The resultant SHIV (SHIV Ba-L) replicated in CCR5-positive PM-1 cells but not in CCR5-negative CEMX174 cells. Infection of HOS cells expressing different co-receptors(More)
R5 HIV-1 strains resistant to the CCR5 antagonist Maraviroc (MVC) can use drug-bound CCR5. We demonstrate that MVC-resistant HIV-1 exhibits delayed kinetics of coreceptor engagement and fusion during drug-bound versus free CCR5 infection of cell lines. Antibodies directed against the second extracellular loop (ECL2) of CCR5 had greater antiviral activity(More)
BACKGROUND Targeting host-cell pathways to increase the potency of nucleoside/nucleotide analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) is an important strategy for clinical investigation. Resveratrol is a natural product that inhibits cellular ribonucleotide reductase, prolonging the S phase of the cell cycle and preferentially lowering dATP levels. (More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 infection requires functional interactions of the viral surface (gp120) glycoprotein with cell surface CD4 and a chemokine coreceptor (usually CCR5 or CXCR4) and of the viral transmembrane (gp41) glycoprotein with the target cell membrane. Extensive genetic variability, generally in gp120 and the gp41 ectodomain,(More)
CCR5 blockers inhibit CCR5-tropic (R5) HIV-1, including strains resistant to other antiretrovirals. We demonstrate that the CCR5 antibody HGS004 and the CCR5 antagonist maraviroc have potent antiviral synergy against R5 HIV-1, translating into dose reductions of more than 10-fold for maraviroc and more than 150-fold for HGS004. These data, together with the(More)
A bacterial endophyte was engineered for insecticidal activity against the European corn borer. The cryIA(c) gene from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki was introduced into the chromosome of Clavibacter xyli subsp. cynodontis by using an integrative plasmid vector. The integration vectors pCG740 and pCG741 included the replicon pGEM5Zf(+), which is(More)
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) replicons which include the genetic element oriP and a functional gene for Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA-1) can be maintained episomally in a variety of mammalian cell lines [Yates et al., Nature 313 (1985) 812-815]. We have assessed the application of an EBV replicon for foreign gene expression. Two cDNAs, human(More)
Objectives To compare the effectiveness of HIV integrase inhibitor monotherapy between raltegravir and dolutegravir as an approach to simplify therapy. Methods We evaluated and compared the efficacy of 20 week monotherapy with dolutegravir or raltegravir in humanized mice (HSC-NSG) infected with HIVBaL. Plasma HIV RNA was measured by quantitative RT-PCR(More)