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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cortical and spinal motor neuron dysfunction. Routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have previously shown hypointense signal in the motor cortex on T(2)-weighted images in some ALS patients, however, the cause of this finding is unknown. To(More)
Activity-dependent modulation of synaptic transmission is an essential mechanism underlying many brain functions. Here we report an unusual form of synaptic modulation that depends on Na+ influx and mitochondrial Na(+)-Ca2+ exchanger, but not on Ca2+ influx. In Ca(2+)-free medium, tetanic stimulation of Xenopus motoneurons induced a striking potentiation of(More)
Increasing evidence supports the existence of distinct neural systems that subserve two dimensions of affect--arousal and valence. Ten adult participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during which they were presented a range of standardized faces and then asked, during the scan, to rate the emotional expressions of the faces along the(More)
Although observational learning by children may occur through imitating a modeler's actions, it can also occur through learning about an object's dynamic affordances--a process that M. Tomasello (1996) calls "emulation." The relative contributions of imitation and emulation within observational learning were examined in a study with 14- to 26-month-old(More)
The inflammatory response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) at the site of disease is Th1 driven. Whether the Th17 cytokines, IL-17 and IL-22, contribute to this response in humans is unknown. We hypothesized that IL-17 and IL-22 contribute to the inflammatory response in pleural and pericardial disease sites of human tuberculosis (TB). We studied(More)
This paper introduces a flexible sediment classification scheme for modern and ancient lake sediments employed at the Limnological Research Center, University of Minnesota. Our classification scheme emphasizes the macroscopic structure and microscopic components of the sedimentary matrix (clastic, chemical and biological) and can be applied to a wide range(More)
HIV-1-infected people have an increased risk of developing extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB), the immunopathogenesis of which is poorly understood. Here, we conducted a detailed immunological analysis of human pericardial TB, to determine the effect of HIV-1 co-infection on the phenotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)-specific memory T cells and the(More)