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Quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling is one of the major computational tools employed in medicinal chemistry. However, throughout its entire history it has drawn both praise and criticism concerning its reliability, limitations, successes, and failures. In this paper, we discuss (i) the development and evolution of QSAR; (ii) the current(More)
Several alternative methods to replace animal experiments have been accepted by legal bodies. An even larger number of tests are under development or already in use for non-regulatory applications or for the generation of information stored in proprietary knowledge bases. The next step for the use of the different in vitro methods is their combination into(More)
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) ToxCast program is testing a large library of Agency-relevant chemicals using in vitro high-throughput screening (HTS) approaches to support the development of improved toxicity prediction models. Launched in 2007, Phase I of the program screened 310 chemicals, mostly pesticides, across hundreds of ToxCast(More)
Chemotypes are a new approach for representing molecules, chemical substructures and patterns, reaction rules, and reactions. Chemotypes are capable of integrating types of information beyond what is possible using current representation methods (e.g., SMARTS patterns) or reaction transformations (e.g., SMIRKS, reaction SMILES). Chemotypes are expressed in(More)
A new approach to predicting the biological activity of small molecule pharmaceutics is demonstrated. Structural features of medicinal chemistry building blocks are used as 2-D molecular descriptors. These descriptors include predefined structural features and macrostructures obtained from a supervised process in which features in the core library are(More)
A significant degree of cell damage is observed during suspension cell culture with air sparging. Protective agents can be added to the culture medium to protect the cells from damage. It has been observed that cells tend to adhere to air-medium interfaces and cell damage is mainly due to this cell-bubble interaction; protective additives have been found to(More)
ABSTRACT Genetic toxicity data from various sources were integrated into a rigorously designed database using the ToxML schema. The public database sources include the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) submission data from approved new drug applications, food contact notifications, generally recognized as safe food ingredients, and chemicals from the(More)
Cell damage has been observed in suspension cell cultures with air sparging, especially in the absence of any protective additives. This damage is associated with cells adhering to bubbles, and it has been shown that if this adhesion is prevented, cell damage is prevented. This article presents a thermodynamic approach for predicting cell adhesion at the(More)
A commonly stated requirement for the preparation of stable Langmuir monolayers of amphiphilic molecules at an air/water interface is that the surfactant must be insoluble in the subphase solution; however, a few prior studies have reported that some soluble surfactants can, under certain conditions, be compressed. The anomalous compression of soluble(More)
Precise estimation of state variables and model parameters is essential for efficient process operation, including model predictive control, abnormal situation management , and decision making under uncertainty. Bayesian formulation of the estimation problem suggests a general solution for all types of systems. Even though the theory of Bayesian estimation(More)