James Rathman

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Quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling is one of the major computational tools employed in medicinal chemistry. However, throughout its entire history it has drawn both praise and criticism concerning its reliability, limitations, successes, and failures. In this paper, we discuss (i) the development and evolution of QSAR; (ii) the current(More)
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) ToxCast program is testing a large library of Agency-relevant chemicals using in vitro high-throughput screening (HTS) approaches to support the development of improved toxicity prediction models. Launched in 2007, Phase I of the program screened 310 chemicals, mostly pesticides, across hundreds of ToxCast(More)
Chemotypes are a new approach for representing molecules, chemical substructures and patterns, reaction rules, and reactions. Chemotypes are capable of integrating types of information beyond what is possible using current representation methods (e.g., SMARTS patterns) or reaction transformations (e.g., SMIRKS, reaction SMILES). Chemotypes are expressed in(More)
A new approach to predicting the biological activity of small molecule pharmaceutics is demonstrated. Structural features of medicinal chemistry building blocks are used as 2-D molecular descriptors. These descriptors include predefined structural features and macrostructures obtained from a supervised process in which features in the core library are(More)
Precise estimation of state variables and model parameters is essential for efficient process operation, including model predictive control, abnormal situation management, and decision making under uncertainty. Bayesian formulation of the estimation problem suggests a general solution for all types of systems. Even though the theory of Bayesian estimation(More)
Several alternative methods to replace animal experiments have been accepted by legal bodies. An even larger number of tests are under development or already in use for non-regulatory applications or for the generation of information stored in proprietary knowledge bases. The next step for the use of the different in vitro methods is their combination into(More)
This research focused on the use of sonication to destroy surfactants and surface tension properties in industrial wastewaters that affect traditional water treatment processes. We have investigated the sonochemical destruction of surfactants and a chelating agent to understand the release of metals from surfactants during sonication. In addition, the(More)
A significant degree of cell damage is observed during suspension cell culture with air sparging. Protective agents can be added to the culture medium to protect the cells from damage. It has been observed that cells tend to adhere to air-medium interfaces and cell damage is mainly due to this cell-bubble interaction; protective additives have been found to(More)
The degradation of nonvolatile surfactants sodium 4-octylbenzene sulfonate (OBS) and dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBS) and a nonvolatile nonsurfactant 4-ethylbenzene sulfonic acid (EBS), as single components and binary mixtures, were studied under 354 kHz ultrasound. In addition, the effects of pulsed ultrasound on degradation were also examined. Results show(More)
ABSTRACT Genetic toxicity data from various sources were integrated into a rigorously designed database using the ToxML schema. The public database sources include the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) submission data from approved new drug applications, food contact notifications, generally recognized as safe food ingredients, and chemicals from the(More)