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In the three decades since pluripotent mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells were first described they have been derived and maintained by using various empirical combinations of feeder cells, conditioned media, cytokines, growth factors, hormones, fetal calf serum, and serum extracts. Consequently ES-cell self-renewal is generally considered to be dependent on(More)
Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is homologous to the product of the Drosophila gene shaggy (zeste-white 3), which is required for signalling by wingless during Drosophila development. To test whether GSK-3 is also involved in vertebrate pattern formation, its role was investigated during early Xenopus development. It was found that dominant-negative(More)
BACKGROUND Exposing eukaryotic cells to lithium ions (Li+) during development has marked effects on cell fate and organization. The phenotypic consequences of Li+ treatment on Xenopus embryos and sporulating Dictyostelium are similar to the effects of inhibition or disruption, respectively, of a highly conserved protein serine/threonine kinase, glycogen(More)
The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases Erk-1 and Erk-2 are proline-directed kinases that are themselves activated through concomitant phosphorylation of tyrosine and threonine residues. The kinase p54 (M(r) 54,000), which was first isolated from cycloheximide-treated rats, is proline-directed like Erks-1/2, and requires both Tyr and Ser/Thr(More)
Dopamine (DA) is a neurotransmitter involved in the control of locomotion, emotion, cognition, and reward. Administration of lithium salts is known to inhibit DA-associated behaviors in experimental animal models through unknown mechanisms. Here, we used a pharmacogenetic approach to show that DA can exert its behavioral effects by acting on a(More)
Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) reduced the mobility of human tau on SDS-PAGE, prevented binding of the monoclonal antibody (mAb), Tau.1, and induced binding of the mAb 8D8. Recombinant tau phosphorylated by GSK-3 aligned on SDS-PAGE with the abnormally phosphorylated tau (PHF-tau) associated with the paired helical filaments in Alzheimer's disease(More)
Signalling by the Wnt family of secreted lipoproteins has essential functions in development and disease. The canonical Wnt/beta-catenin pathway requires a single-span transmembrane receptor, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6), whose phosphorylation at multiple PPPSP motifs is induced upon stimulation by Wnt and is critical for(More)
BACKGROUND 14-3-3 proteins are abundant and conserved polypeptides that mediate the cellular effects of basophilic protein kinases through their ability to bind specific peptide motifs phosphorylated on serine or threonine. RESULTS We have used mass spectrometry to analyze proteins that associate with 14-3-3 isoforms in HEK293 cells. This identified 170(More)
Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3)-alpha and -beta are closely related protein-serine kinases, which act as inhibitory components of Wnt signalling during embryonic development and cell proliferation in adult tissues. Insight into the physiological function of GSK-3 has emerged from genetic analysis in Drosophila, Dictyostelium and yeast. Here we show that(More)
Protein kinases control cellular decision processes by phosphorylating specific substrates. Thousands of in vivo phosphorylation sites have been identified, mostly by proteome-wide mapping. However, systematically matching these sites to specific kinases is presently infeasible, due to limited specificity of consensus motifs, and the influence of contextual(More)