James R Woodgett

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In the three decades since pluripotent mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells were first described they have been derived and maintained by using various empirical combinations of feeder cells, conditioned media, cytokines, growth factors, hormones, fetal calf serum, and serum extracts. Consequently ES-cell self-renewal is generally considered to be dependent on(More)
Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is a multifunctional serine/threonine kinase found in all eukaryotes. The enzyme is a key regulator of numerous signalling pathways, including cellular responses to Wnt, receptor tyrosine kinases and G-protein-coupled receptors and is involved in a wide range of cellular processes, ranging from glycogen metabolism to cell(More)
The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases Erk-1 and Erk-2 are proline-directed kinases that are themselves activated through concomitant phosphorylation of tyrosine and threonine residues. The kinase p54 (M(r) 54,000), which was first isolated from cycloheximide-treated rats, is proline-directed like Erks-1/2, and requires both Tyr and Ser/Thr(More)
Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is an ankyrin-repeat containing serine-threonine protein kinase capable of interacting with the cytoplasmic domains of integrin beta1, beta2, and beta3 subunits. Overexpression of ILK in epithelial cells disrupts cell-extracellular matrix as well as cell-cell interactions, suppresses suspension-induced apoptosis (also called(More)
Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a protein-serine kinase implicated in the hormonal control of several regulatory proteins including glycogen synthase and the transcription factor c-jun. Two classes of rat brain cDNA for this enzyme have been isolated termed GSK-3 alpha and GSK-3 beta. The alpha-type encodes a 51 kd polypeptide, the sequence of which(More)
Dopamine (DA) is a neurotransmitter involved in the control of locomotion, emotion, cognition, and reward. Administration of lithium salts is known to inhibit DA-associated behaviors in experimental animal models through unknown mechanisms. Here, we used a pharmacogenetic approach to show that DA can exert its behavioral effects by acting on a(More)
BACKGROUND Exposing eukaryotic cells to lithium ions (Li+) during development has marked effects on cell fate and organization. The phenotypic consequences of Li+ treatment on Xenopus embryos and sporulating Dictyostelium are similar to the effects of inhibition or disruption, respectively, of a highly conserved protein serine/threonine kinase, glycogen(More)
Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3)-alpha and -beta are closely related protein-serine kinases, which act as inhibitory components of Wnt signalling during embryonic development and cell proliferation in adult tissues. Insight into the physiological function of GSK-3 has emerged from genetic analysis in Drosophila, Dictyostelium and yeast. Here we show that(More)
Signalling by the Wnt family of secreted lipoproteins has essential functions in development and disease. The canonical Wnt/beta-catenin pathway requires a single-span transmembrane receptor, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6), whose phosphorylation at multiple PPPSP motifs is induced upon stimulation by Wnt and is critical for(More)
Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is homologous to the product of the Drosophila gene shaggy (zeste-white 3), which is required for signalling by wingless during Drosophila development. To test whether GSK-3 is also involved in vertebrate pattern formation, its role was investigated during early Xenopus development. It was found that dominant-negative(More)