James R Whittle

Learn More
A major goal in genomics is to understand how genes are regulated in different tissues, stages of development, diseases, and species. Mapping DNase I hypersensitive (HS) sites within nuclear chromatin is a powerful and well-established method of identifying many different types of regulatory elements, but in the past it has been limited to analysis of(More)
Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) perforate the nuclear envelope and represent the exclusive passageway into and out of the nucleus of the eukaryotic cell. Apart from their essential transport function, components of the NPC have important, direct roles in nuclear organization and in gene regulation. Because of its central role in cell biology, it is of(More)
We have used conditional wingless genotypes to dissect the role of this gene in late stages of wing disc development. One of these genotypes (wgIL/wg-lacZ) is simultaneously a reporter of wingless transcription and temperature-sensitive for wingless function, and has allowed us to define its pattern of transcription in the absence of wingless activity. The(More)
We demonstrate the role of the segment polarity gene patched (ptc) in patterning in the cuticle of the adult fly. Genetic mosaics of a lethal allele of patched show that the contribution of patched varies in a position-specific manner, defining three regions in the wing where ptc clones, respectively, behave as wild-type cells, affect vein formation, or are(More)
We report the sequence and analysis of the 814-megabase genome of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, a model for developmental and systems biology. The sequencing strategy combined whole-genome shotgun and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequences. This use of BAC clones, aided by a pooling strategy, overcame difficulties associated with(More)
The patterning of cells in insect segments requires the exchange of information between cells, which in Drosophila depends on the activity of members of the segment-polarity class of genes. Here we report the molecular characterization of one such gene, patched. We find that patched encodes a large protein with several possible membrane-spanning domains and(More)
Influenza viruses take a yearly toll on human life despite efforts to contain them with seasonal vaccines. These viruses evade human immunity through the evolution of variants that resist neutralization. The identification of antibodies that recognize invariant structures on the influenza haemagglutinin (HA) protein have invigorated efforts to develop(More)
Seasonal antigenic drift of circulating influenza virus leads to a requirement for frequent changes in vaccine composition, because exposure or vaccination elicits human antibodies with limited cross-neutralization of drifted strains. We describe a human monoclonal antibody, CH65, obtained by isolating rearranged heavy- and light-chain genes from sorted(More)
Although the development of sea urchin embryos has been studied extensively and clearly involves both cell adhesion and cell migration, rather little is known about the adhesion receptors and extracellular matrix molecules involved. The completion of the genome of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus allows a comprehensive survey of the complement of cell-cell and(More)
Influenza viruses pose a significant threat to the public and are a burden on global health systems. Each year, influenza vaccines must be rapidly produced to match circulating viruses, a process constrained by dated technology and vulnerable to unexpected strains emerging from humans and animal reservoirs. Here we use knowledge of protein structure to(More)