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The introduction of species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approaches to ecological risk assessment offers the potential for a more transparent scientific basis for the derivation of predicted no-effect concentrations. However, conventional SSD methodologies have relied on standard distributions (e.g., log logistic, log normal) that are not necessarily(More)
Population regulation is fundamental to the long-term persistence of populations and their responses to harvesting, habitat modification, and exposure to toxic chemicals. In fish and other organisms with complex life histories, regulation may involve density dependence in different life-stages and vital rates. We studied density dependence in body growth(More)
Species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) are increasingly incorporated into ecological risk assessment procedures. Although these new techniques offer a more transparent approach to risk assessment they demand more and superior quality data. Issues of data quantity and quality are especially important for marine datasets that tend to be smaller (and have(More)
Tests with vertebrates are an integral part of environmental hazard identification and risk assessment of chemicals, plant protection products, pharmaceuticals, biocides, feed additives and effluents. These tests raise ethical and economic concerns and are considered as inappropriate for assessing all of the substances and effluents that require regulatory(More)
Safety factors are used in ecological risk assessments to extrapolate from the toxic responses of laboratory test species to all species representing that group in the environment. More accurate extrapolation of species responses is important. Advances in understanding the mechanistic basis for toxicological responses and identifying molecular response(More)
The threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) concept proposes that an exposure threshold value can be derived for chemicals, below which no significant risk to human health or the environment is expected. This concept goes further than setting acceptable exposure levels for individual chemicals, because it attempts to set a de minimis value for chemicals,(More)
The European regulation on plant protection products (1107/2009) (EC, 2009a), the revisions to the biocides Directive (COM[2009]267) (EC, 2009b), and the regulation concerning chemicals (Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 'REACH') (EC.2006) only support the marketing and use of chemical products on the basis that they do not induce endocrine disruption in humans(More)
There is generally a lack of saltwater ecotoxicity data for risk assessment purposes, leaving an unknown margin of uncertainty in saltwater assessments that utilize surrogate freshwater data. Consequently, a need for sound scientific advice on the suitability of using freshwater data to extrapolate to saltwater effects exists. Here we use species(More)
The regulation of substances discharged to estuarine and coastal environments relies upon data derived from ecotoxicity tests. Most such data are generated for freshwater rather than saltwater species. If freshwater toxicity data are related to saltwater toxic effects in a systematic and predictable way, the former can be used to predict the latter. This(More)
Vitellogenin, the fish egg yolk precursor protein, is the most common biochemical endpoint in general use for the detection of (anti) estrogen active substances in fish and other oviparous species. This review aims to cover the major methods (both protein and nucleic acid) for vitellogenin determination. Comparisons are drawn between vitellogenin and other(More)