James R. Riches

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A sensitive method has been developed for the trace analysis of the sulphur mustard metabolite thiodiglycol (TDG) in urine, and its oxidation product thiodiglycol sulphoxide (TDGO) after reduction to thiodiglycol. Thiodiglycol was extracted from urine by solid phase extraction onto a polymeric cartridge and, after isolation, converted to its(More)
Organophosphorus nerve agents inhibit the activity of cholinesterases by phosphylation of the active site serine. In addition, sarin, cyclosarin, soman and tabun have been shown to phosphylate a tyrosine residue in albumin. Therapies against nerve agent poisoning include the use of oximes to reactivate inhibited cholinesterases by displacement of the(More)
A sensitive method has been developed for the trace analysis of alkyl alkylphosphonic acids, metabolites of nerve agents, in urine using a benchtop ion trap mass spectrometer. The acids were isolated from urine by simple solid phase extraction and converted to their pentafluorobenzyl esters. An ion trap mass spectrometer in selected reaction monitoring mode(More)
On October 26, 2002, Russian Special Forces deployed a chemical aerosol against Chechen terrorists to rescue hostages in the Dubrovka theatre. Its use confirmed Russian military interest in chemicals with effects on personnel and caused 125 deaths through a combination of the aerosol and inadequate medical care. This study provides evidence from liquid(More)
This work describes a new specific, sensitive, and rapid stable isotope dilution method for the simultaneous detection of the organophosphorus nerve agents (OPNAs) tabun (GA), sarin (GB), soman (GD), cyclosarin (GF), VR, VX, and VM adducts to tyrosine (Tyr). Serum, plasma, and lysed whole blood samples (50 μL) were prepared by protein precipitation followed(More)
We show that the physiological activity of solid aerosolized benzylidenemalononitriles (BMNs) including 'tear gas' (CS) in historic human volunteer trials correlates with activation of the human transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 ion channel (hTRPA1). This suggests that the irritation caused by the most potent of these compounds results from activation(More)
Detailed chemical analysis of solutions used to decontaminate chemical warfare agents can be used to support verification and forensic attribution. Decontamination solutions are amongst the most difficult matrices for chemical analysis because of their corrosive and potentially emulsion-based nature. Consequently, there are relatively few publications that(More)
In the event of alleged use of organophosphorus nerve agents, all kinds of environmental samples can be received for analysis. These might include decontaminated and charred matter collected from the site of a suspected chemical attack. In other scenarios, such matter might be sampled to confirm the site of a chemical weapon test or clandestine laboratory(More)
The analysis of biomedical samples such as urine and blood can provide evidence of exposure to chemicals for a range of applications including occupational exposure monitoring, detection of drugs of abuse, performance enhancement in sport and investigations of poisoning and incapacitation. This paper reports the development of an analytical method for two(More)
Two children presented with an isolated foot and ankle deformity. Examination in each suggested a plexiform neurofibroma although this diagnosis had not been considered before referral. Diagnosis of neurofibromatosis type 1 was confirmed by MRI scanning and on investigation both patients were proved to have widespread disease. One had a plexiform(More)