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Starch is the major storage carbohydrate in higher plants and of considerable importance for the human diet and for numerous technical applications. In addition, starch can be accumulated transiently in chloroplasts as a temporary deposit of carbohydrates during ongoing photosynthesis. This transitory starch has to be mobilized during the subsequent dark(More)
To determine the enzymatic function of the starch-related R1 protein it was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to apparent homogeneity. Incubation of the purified protein with various phosphate donor and acceptor molecules showed that R1 is capable of phosphorylating glucosyl residues of alpha-glucans at both the C-6 and the C-3(More)
During the day, plants accumulate starch in their leaves as an energy source for the coming night. Based on recent findings, the prevailing view of how the transitory starch is remobilized needs considerable revision. Analyses of transgenic and mutant plants demonstrate that plastidic glucan phosphorylase is not required for normal starch breakdown and cast(More)
A functional screen in Escherichia coli was established to identify potato genes coding for proteins involved in transitory starch degradation. One clone isolated had a sequence very similar to a recently described chloroplast-targeted beta-amylase of Arabidopsis. Expression of the gene in E. coli showed that the protein product was a functional(More)
A chimaeric antisense construct was used to reduce the activities of the two major starch-synthase isoforms in potato tubers simultaneously. A range of reductions in total starch-synthase activities were found in the resulting transgenic plants, up to a maximum of 90% inhibition. The reduction in starch-synthase activity had a profound effect on the starch(More)
A potato (Solanum tuberosum) cDNA encoding an isoform of disproportionating enzyme (stDPE2) was identified in a functional screen in Escherichia coli. The stDPE2 protein was demonstrated to be present in chloroplasts and to accumulate at times of active starch degradation in potato leaves and tubers. Transgenic potato plants were made in which its presence(More)
An Arabidopsis cDNA coding for a previously uncharacterized isoform of inorganic pyrophosphatase was isolated. It was used to complement an E. coli mutant, demonstrating that it coded for an active enzyme. MgCl(2) was necessary for the protein's activity, whilst NaF inhibited it. The K(m) for pyrophosphate and the pH optimum of the protein was determined.(More)
Starch and sucrose are the primary products of photosynthesis in the leaves of most plants. Starch represents the major plant storage carbohydrate providing energy during the times of heterotrophic growth. Starch metabolism has been studied extensively, leading to a good knowledge of the numerous enzymes involved. In contrast, understanding of the(More)
Starch is one of the most important products synthesized by plants that is used in industrial processes. If it were possible to increase production or modify starches in vivo, using combinations or either genetically altered or mutant plants, it may make them cheaper for use by industry, or open up new markets for the modified starches. The conversion of(More)
A potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cDNA coding for the chloroplastic isoform of fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (cp-FBPase) was utilized to repress its activity in tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) using antisense techniques. The patatin B33 promoter was used to ensure fruit specificity of the antisense effect. Transgenic plants were isolated in which(More)