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This paper describes recent research in subjective usability measurement at IBM. The focus of the research was the application of psychometric methods to the development and evaluation of questionnaires that measure user satisfaction with system usability. The primary goals of this paper are to (1) discuss the psychometric characteristics of four IBM… (More)

Since its introduction in 1986, the 10-item System Usability Scale (SUS) has been assumed to be unidimensional. Factor analysis of two independent SUS data sets reveals that the SUS actually has two factors – Usability (8 items) and Learnability (2 items). These new scales have reasonable reliability (coefficient alpha of .91 and .70, respectively). They… (More)

Factor analysis of Post Study System Usability Questionnaire (PSSUQ) data from 5 years of usability studies (with a heavy emphasis on speech dictation systems) indicated a 3-factor structure consistent with that initially described 10 years ago: factors for System Usefulness, Information Quality, and Interface Quality. Estimated reliabilities (ranging from… (More)

Correlations between prototypical usability metrics from 90 distinct usability tests were strong when measured at the task-level (r between .44 and .60). Using test-level satisfaction ratings instead of task-level ratings attenuated the correlations (r between .16 and .24). The method of aggregating data from a usability test had a significant effect on the… (More)

<i>"Really, how many users do you need to test? Three answers, all different."</i>---User Experience, Vol. 4, Issue 4, 2005

The distribution of task time data in usability studies is positively skewed. Practitioners who are aware of this positive skew tend to report the sample median. Monte Carlo simulations using data from 61 large-sample usability tasks showed that the sample median is a biased estimate of the population median. Using the geometric mean to estimate the center… (More)

There are 2 excellent reasons to compute usability problem-discovery rates. First, an estimate of the problem-discovery rate is a key component for projecting the required sample size for a usability study. Second, practitioners can use this estimate to calculate the proportion of discovered problems for a given sample size. Unfortunately, small-sample… (More)

In this introduction to the special issue of the International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction , I discuss some current topics in usability evaluation and indicate how the contributions to the issue relate to these topics. The contributions cover a wide range of topics in usability evaluation, including a discussion of usability science, how to… (More)