James R Hargreaves

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BACKGROUND HIV infection and intimate-partner violence share a common risk environment in much of southern Africa. The aim of the Intervention with Microfinance for AIDS and Gender Equity (IMAGE) study was to assess a structural intervention that combined a microfinance programme with a gender and HIV training curriculum. METHODS Villages in the rural(More)
OBJECTIVES We sought to obtain evidence about the scope of women's empowerment and the mechanisms underlying the significant reduction in intimate partner violence documented by the Intervention With Microfinance for AIDS and Gender Equity (IMAGE) cluster-randomized trial in rural South Africa. METHODS The IMAGE intervention combined a microfinance(More)
SETTING South Africa's rural Northern Province. OBJECTIVES To examine patterns of health seeking behaviour among hospitalised tuberculosis patients. DESIGN Information on personal characteristics, health seeking behaviour and delays to presentation and hospitalisation was collected from hospitalised TB patients. Analysis of rates was used to investigate(More)
Much has been written about the measurement of socio-economic position (SEP) in high-income countries (HIC). Less has been written for an epidemiology, health systems and public health audience about the measurement of SEP in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The social stratification processes in many LMIC-and therefore the appropriate measurement(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess effects of a combined microfinance and training intervention on HIV risk behavior among young female participants in rural South Africa. DESIGN : Secondary analysis of quantitative and qualitative data from a cluster randomized trial, the Intervention with Microfinance for AIDS and Gender Equity study. METHODS Eight villages were(More)
BACKGROUND Epidemiological studies often require measures of socio-economic position (SEP). The application of principal components analysis (PCA) to data on asset-ownership is one popular approach to household SEP measurement. Proponents suggest that the approach provides a rational method for weighting asset data in a single indicator, captures the most(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the evidence that the association between educational attainment and risk of HIV infection is changing over time in sub-Saharan Africa. DESIGN AND METHODS Systematic review of published peer-reviewed articles. Articles were identified that reported original data comparing individually measured educational attainment and HIV status(More)
Growing consensus indicates that progress in tuberculosis control in the low- and middle-income world will require not only investment in strengthening tuberculosis control programs, diagnostics, and treatment but also action on the social determinants of tuberculosis. However, practical ideas for action are scarcer than is notional support for this idea.(More)
The role of social capital in promoting health is now widely debated within international public health. In relation to HIV, the results of previous observational and cross-sectional studies have been mixed. In some settings it has been suggested that high levels of social capital and community cohesion might be protective and facilitate more effective(More)
OBJECTIVES To assess whether educational status is associated with HIV-1 infection in developing countries by conducting a systematic review of published literature. METHODS Articles were identified through electronic databases and hand searching key journals. Studies containing appropriately analysed individual level data on the association between(More)