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To be agile and cost effective, data centers should allow dynamic resource allocation across large server pools. In particular, the data center network should enable any server to be assigned to any service. To meet these goals, we present VL2, a practical network architecture that scales to support huge data centers with uniform high capacity between(More)
The data centers used to create cloud services represent a significant investment in capital outlay and ongoing costs. Accordingly, we first examine the costs of cloud service data centers today. The cost breakdown reveals the importance of optimizing work completed per dollar invested. Unfortunately, the resources inside the data centers often operate at(More)
Very large data centers are very expensive (servers, power/cool-ing, networking, physical plant.) Newer, geo-diverse, distributed or containerized designs offer a more economical alternative. We argue that a significant portion of cloud services are embarrassingly distributed – meaning there are high performance realiza-tions that do not require massive(More)
The system-to-administrator ratio is commonly used as a rough metric to understand administrative costs in high-scale services. With smaller,less automated services this ratio can be as low as 2:1, whereas on industry leading, highly automated services, we've seen ratios as high as 2,500:1. Wi t h i n Microsoft services, Autopilot [1] is often cited as the(More)
Large numbers of low-cost, low-reliability commodity components are rapidly replacing high-quality, mainframe-class systems in data centers. These commodity clusters are far less expensive than the systems they replace, but they can bring new administrative costs in addition to heat and power-density challenges. This proposal introduces a data center(More)