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Cells were microinjected with four mouse monoclonal antibodies that were directed against either alpha- or beta-tubulin subunits, one monoclonal with activity against both subunits, and a guinea pig polyclonal antibody with activity directed against both subunits, to determine the effects on the distribution of cytoplasmic microtubules and 10-nm filaments.(More)
We have examined the mechanism by which the transcriptional activity of the cAMP-responsive factor CREB is attenuated following induction with forskolin. Metabolic labeling studies reveal that, after an initial burst of phosphorylation in response to cAMP, CREB is dephosphorylated and transcription of the cAMP-responsive somatostatin gene is correspondingly(More)
A number of signalling pathways stimulate transcription of target genes through nuclear factors whose activities are primarily regulated by phosphorylation. Cyclic AMP regulates the expression of numerous genes, for example, through the protein kinase-A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation of transcription factor CREB at Ser 133. Although phosphorylation may(More)
Expression of the ras oncogene is thought to be one of the contributing events in the initiation of certain types of human cancer. To determine the cellular activities that are directly triggered by ras proteins, the early consequences of microinjection of the human H-ras proteins into quiescent rat embryo fibroblasts were investigated. Within 30 minutes to(More)
To investigate the possible role of ras proteins in the differentiation process signaled by nerve growth factor, we have microinjected the proto-oncogenic and oncogenic (T24) forms of the human H-ras protein into living rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12). PC12 cells, which have the phenotype of replicating chromaffin-like cells under normal growth(More)
The catalytic (C) subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase is inhibited by the regulatory (R) subunit and by a thermostable inhibitor (PKI). Both inhibitors also affect the intracellular distribution of the C subunit. Whether injected into the cytoplasm or into the nucleus, free C subunit can enter and exit the nucleus freely. After 30 min its distribution(More)
Microinjection of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (A-kinase) into living fibroblasts or the treatment of these cells with agents that elevate the intracellular cAMP level caused marked alterations in cell morphology including a rounded phenotype and a complete loss of actin microfilament bundles. These effects were transient and fully(More)
Microinjection of the purified catalytic subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (A-kinase) into living rat embryo fibroblasts leads to dramatic changes in vimentin intermediate filament (IF) organization, involving the collapse of the filaments into tight bundles. In some cell types, this rearrangement of the IF proceeds further, leading to an(More)
Human mutations in Nkx2-5 lead to progressive cardiomyopathy and conduction defects via unknown mechanisms. To define these pathways, we generated mice with a ventricular-restricted knockout of Nkx2-5, which display no structural defects but have progressive complete heart block, and massive trabecular muscle overgrowth found in some patients with Nkx2-5(More)