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Although cancer classification has improved over the past 30 years, there has been no general approach for identifying new cancer classes (class discovery) or for assigning tumors to known classes (class prediction). Here, a generic approach to cancer classification based on gene expression monitoring by DNA microarrays is described and applied to human(More)
Treatment of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is based on the concept of tailoring the intensity of therapy to a patient's risk of relapse. To determine whether gene expression profiling could enhance risk assignment, we used oligonucleotide microarrays to analyze the pattern of genes expressed in leukemic blasts from 360 pediatric ALL patients.(More)
Recent work has revealed the existence of a class of small non-coding RNA species, known as microRNAs (miRNAs), which have critical functions across various biological processes. Here we use a new, bead-based flow cytometric miRNA expression profiling method to present a systematic expression analysis of 217 mammalian miRNAs from 334 samples, including(More)
Chromosomal aberrations are a hallmark of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) but alone fail to induce leukaemia. To identify cooperating oncogenic lesions, we performed a genome-wide analysis of leukaemic cells from 242 paediatric ALL patients using high-resolution, single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays and genomic DNA sequencing. Our analyses revealed(More)
Early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ETP ALL) is an aggressive malignancy of unknown genetic basis. We performed whole-genome sequencing of 12 ETP ALL cases and assessed the frequency of the identified somatic mutations in 94 T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cases. ETP ALL was characterized by activating mutations in genes regulating(More)
Contemporary treatment of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) requires the assignment of patients to specific risk groups. We have recently demonstrated that expression profiling of leukemic blasts can accurately identify the known prognostic subtypes of ALL, including T-cell lineage ALL (T-ALL), E2A-PBX1, TEL-AML1, MLL rearrangements, BCR-ABL, and(More)
We developed 'clipping reveals structure' (CREST), an algorithm that uses next-generation sequencing reads with partial alignments to a reference genome to directly map structural variations at the nucleotide level of resolution. Application of CREST to whole-genome sequencing data from five pediatric T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemias (T-ALLs) and a(More)
The INK4a tumor suppressor locus encodes p16INK4a, an inhibitor of cyclin D-dependent kinases, and p19ARF, an alternative reading frame protein that also blocks cell proliferation. Surprisingly, mice lacking p19ARF but expressing functional p16INK4a develop tumors early in life. Their embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) do not senesce and are transformed by oncogenic(More)
Pediatric high-grade glioma (HGG) is a devastating disease with a less than 20% survival rate 2 years after diagnosis. We analyzed 127 pediatric HGGs, including diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) and non-brainstem HGGs (NBS-HGGs), by whole-genome, whole-exome and/or transcriptome sequencing. We identified recurrent somatic mutations in ACVR1(More)
The Philadelphia chromosome, a chromosomal abnormality that encodes BCR-ABL1, is the defining lesion of chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML) and a subset of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). To define oncogenic lesions that cooperate with BCR-ABL1 to induce ALL, we performed a genome-wide analysis of diagnostic leukaemia samples from 304 individuals with(More)