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There is increasing evidence that iron is involved in the mechanisms that underlie many neurodegenerative diseases. Conditions such as neuroferritinopathy and Friedreich ataxia are associated with mutations in genes that encode proteins that are involved in iron metabolism, and as the brain ages, iron accumulates in regions that are affected by Alzheimer's(More)
Immunohistochemical and histochemical staining were performed on Alzheimer's diseased brain tissue obtained at autopsy. The iron-regulatory proteins transferrin and ferritin as well as iron are, in general, found predominantly in oligodendrocytes similar to that previously reported for normal brain tissue. However, in the vicinity of senile plaques, the(More)
Iron accumulation in the brain occurs in a number of neurodegenerative diseases. Two new iron transport proteins have been identified that may help elucidate the mechanism of abnormal iron accumulation. The Divalent Metal Transporter 1 (DMT1), is responsible for iron uptake from the gut and transport from endosomes. The Metal Transport Protein 1 (MTP1)(More)
Iron is an essential trophic factor that is required for oxygen consumption and ATP production. Thus it plays a key role in vital cell functions. Although the brain has a relatively high rate of oxygen consumption compared to other organs, oligodendrocytes are the principal cells in the CNS that stain for iron under normal conditions. The importance of iron(More)
Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl 4-hydroxylases are a family of iron- and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases that negatively regulate the stability of several proteins that have established roles in adaptation to hypoxic or oxidative stress. These proteins include the transcriptional activators HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha. The ability of the(More)
Glutaric acidemia type I (GA-I) is an inherited disorder of lysine and tryptophan metabolism presenting with striatal lesions anatomically and symptomatically similar to Huntington disease. Affected children commonly suffer acute brain injury in the context of a catabolic state associated with nonspecific illness. The mechanisms underlying injury and(More)
HFE mutations have traditionally been associated with the iron overload disorder known as hemochromatosis. Recently, it has become clear that the two most common mutations in the HFE gene, H63D and C282Y, may be genetic modifiers for risk of neurodegenerative disorders and cancer, respectively. We developed human neuroblastoma stable cell lines that express(More)
Iron deficiency in early life is associated with delayed development as assessed by a number of clinical trials using similar global scales of development; this poor development during infancy persists in most cases after iron therapy has corrected iron status. If iron deficiency occurs in preschool and older children, the consequences appear reversible(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess neuropathology in individuals with restless legs syndrome (RLS). METHODS A standard neuropathologic evaluation was performed on seven brains from individuals who had been diagnosed with RLS. The substantia nigra was examined in greater detail for iron staining and with immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase and proteins involved(More)
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurological disorder that is thought to involve decreased iron availability in the brain. Iron is required for oxidative metabolism and plays a critical role in redox reactions in mitochondria. The recent discovery of mitochondrial ferritin (FtMt) provided the opportunity to identify a potential correlation between iron(More)