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Information is integrated across the visual field to transform local features into a global percept. We now know that V1 neurons provide more spatial integration than originally thought due to the existence of their nonclassical inhibitory surrounds. To understand spatial integration in the visual cortex, we have studied the nature and extent of center and(More)
The responsiveness of neurons in V1 is modulated by stimuli placed outside their classical receptive fields. This nonclassical surround provides input from a larger portion of the visual scene than originally thought, permitting integration of information at early levels in the visual processing stream. Signals from the surround have been reported variously(More)
Iso-orientation surround suppression is a powerful form of visual contextual modulation in which a stimulus of the preferred orientation of a neuron placed outside the classical receptive field (CRF) of the neuron suppresses the response to stimuli within the CRF. This suppression is most often attributed to orientation-tuned signals that propagate(More)
Vision in infant primates is poor, but it is not known which structures in the eye or brain set the main limits to its development. We studied the visual response properties of 348 neurons recorded in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of macaque monkeys aged 1 week to adult. We measured spatial and temporal frequency tuning curves and contrast responses(More)
Amblyopia is a developmental disorder of pattern vision. After surgical creation of esotropic strabismus in the first weeks of life or after wearing -10 diopter contact lenses in one eye to simulate anisometropia during the first months of life, macaques often develop amblyopia. We studied the response properties of visual cortex neurons in six amblyopic(More)
We used fast, pseudorandom temporal sequences of preferred and antipreferred stimuli to drive neuronal firing rates rapidly between minimal and maximal across the visual system. Stimuli were tailored to the preferences of cells recorded in the lateral geniculate nucleus (magnocellular and parvocellular), primary visual cortex (simple and complex), and the(More)
Change blindness is the failure to see large changes in a visual scene that occur simultaneously with a global visual transient. Such visual transients might be brief blanks between visual scenes or the blurs caused by rapid or saccadic eye movements between successive fixations. Shifting attention to the site of the change counters this "blindness" by(More)
The major pathway for visual information reaching cerebral cortex is through the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the thalamus. Acting on this vital relay is another thalamic nucleus, the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN). This nucleus receives topographically organized collaterals from both thalamus and cortex and sends similarly organized projections(More)
A cascade of neuronal signals precedes each saccadic eye movement to targets in the visual scene. In the cerebral cortex, this neuronal processing culminates in the frontal eye field (FEF), where neurons have bursts of activity before the saccade. This presaccadic activity is typically considered to drive downstream activity in the intermediate layers of(More)
The striosome and matrix compartments of the striatum are clearly identified by their neurochemical expression patterns and anatomical connections. To determine whether these compartments are distinguishable functionally, we used [14C]deoxyglucose metabolic mapping in the rat and tested whether neutral behavioral states (free movement, gentle restraint, and(More)