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Old-age survival has increased substantially since 1950. Death rates decelerate with age for insects, worms, and yeast, as well as humans. This evidence of extended postreproductive survival is puzzling. Three biodemographic insights--concerning the correlation of death rates across age, individual differences in survival chances, and induced alterations in(More)
It is generally assumed for most species that mortality rates increase monotonically at advanced ages. Mortality rates were found to level off and decrease at older ages in a population of 1.2 million medflies maintained in cages of 7,200 and in a group of approximately 48,000 adults maintained in solitary confinement. Thus, life expectancy in older(More)
Many compounds hold promise for pharmacologic manipulation of aging. However, such claims are difficult to investigate due to time and budget constraints. Here, we took a comparative approach, using short-lived invertebrate species, to directly test the effects of two tocopherols (Vitamin E) on longevity. gamma-Tocopherol represents the most abundant(More)
REVIEWS T he attempt to remove or reduce the density of a species , even an exotic one, is a challenging undertaking. Eradi-cation is the removal of every potentially reproducing individual of a species or the reduction of their population density below sustainable levels. Many eradication programs are carried out over thousands of hectares, although others(More)
Reproduction exacts a price in terms of decreased survival. Our analysis of the interplay between age-patterns of fecundity and mortality for individual female medflies (Ceratitis capitata) reveals that individual mortality is associated with the time dynamics of the egg-laying trajectory. We find, in a sample of 531 medflies, that each individual has a(More)
The results of life table experiments to determine the effects of artificial impairment (leg amputation) in 7500 Drosophila melanogaster adults revealed that the extent to which life expectancy was reduced in impaired individuals was conditional on: (1) leg location and number amputated--front leg had greatest impact and the number of legs amputated(More)
Summary We address the problem of establishing a survival schedule for wild populations. A demographic key identity is established, leading to a method whereby age-specific survival and mortality can be deduced from a marked cohort life table established for individuals that are randomly sampled at unknown age and marked, with subsequent recording of(More)