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The three-dimensional aerodynamic structure of a tree shelterbelt is described by two structural descriptors: vegetative surface area density (vegetative surface area per unit canopy volume) and cubic density (vegetative volume per unit canopy volume). Based on destructive measurements, estimates of both descriptors for a two-row 31-year-old green ash(More)
Cover crops act as green manure adding organic matter to agricultural-soils. For legume green manures to be an effective nitrogen (N) source for organic farming systems, their N release must be in synchrony with crop N demand. The objectives of this study were 1) determine the decomposition rates of three common cover crops (white clover, (Trifolium(More)
FEATURE MEETING MULTIPLE DEMANDS UNDER CLIMATE CHANGE US and Canadian agricultural lands are being pressed to provide more environmental and economic services, while at the same time their capacity to provide these services under potential climate change (CC) is being questioned (Field et al. 2007; CAST 2011). Producers are already experiencing weather(More)
Windbreak Shelterbelt a b s t r a c t Multiple-stemmed tree species are often used in agricultural settings, playing a significant role in natural resource conservation and carbon sequestration. Biomass estimation, whether for modeling growth under different climate scenarios, accounting for carbon sequestered, or inclusion in natural resource inventories,(More)
Root-pruning is generally recommended as an appropriate treatment to reduce competition for soil water and/or nutrients and suppression of crop yield in areas adjacent to windbreaks. Several recent studies suggest, however, that factors other than soil water might be causing yield reduction at the interface. For two consecutive years, we evaluated(More)
We report measurements of 2 Hz pressure fluctuations at and below the soil surface in the vicinity of a surface-based CO 2 flux chamber. These measurements were part of a field experiment to examine the possible role of pressure pumping due to atmospheric pressure fluctuations on measurements of surface fluxes of CO 2. Under the moderate wind speeds, warm(More)
Pesticide and nutrient runoff from agricultural fields is a sacio-envirol~ii~c~~tal problem in the Midwestern United States. Riparian forest buffers (RFBs) are a proven conservation practice that effectively manage this problem, though adoption rates are low. A inail survey was conducted to determine difikrences between adopter and nonadopter(More)
There are many opportunities for biodiversity conservation in organic farm systems. Successful and sustainable conservation efforts in organic systems, however, need to measure appropriate outcomes. In particular, data are needed on the breeding success of associated wildlife species. We measured nesting success of the American Robin (Turdus migratorius) in(More)