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Windbreaks are a major component of successful agricultural systems throughout the world. The focus of this chapter is on temperate-zone, commercial, agricultural systems in North America, where windbreaks contribute to both producer profitability and environmental quality by increasing crop production while simultaneously reducing the level of off-farm(More)
Pisum sativum L. was exposed to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation (280-315 nm) in greenhouse and controlled environment chambers to examine the effect of this radiation on photosynthetic processes. Net photosynthetic rates of intact leaves were reduced by UV-B irradiation. Stable leaf diffusion resistances indicated that the impairment of photosynthesis did(More)
Agroforestry, the deliberate integration of trees into agricultural operations, sequesters carbon (C) while providing valuable services on agricultural lands. However, methods to quantify present and projected C stocks in these open-grown woody systems are limited. As an initial step to address C accounting in agroforestry systems, a spatial Markov random(More)
Carbon sequestration in the woody biomass of shelterbelts has been investigated but there have been no measurements of the C stocks in soil and tree litter under this agroforestry practice. The objective of this study was to quantify C stored in surface soil layers and tree litter within and adjacent to a 35-year-old shelterbelt in eastern Nebraska, USA.(More)
The effectiveness of windbreaks in windspeed reduction is often evaluated without regard to the objects to be protected. In fact, many objects may have different sensitivities to wind and often require different degrees of wind protection. Since commonly used indexes do not consider the sensitivity to wind, a concept of specific protection efficiency is(More)
Cover crops act as green manure adding organic matter to agricultural-soils. For legume green manures to be an effective nitrogen (N) source for organic farming systems, their N release must be in synchrony with crop N demand. The objectives of this study were 1) determine the decomposition rates of three common cover crops (white clover, (Trifolium(More)
Inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport in isolated chloroplasts by lead salts has been demonstrated. Photosystem I activity, as measured by electron transfer from dichlorophenol indophenol to methylviologen, was not reduced by such treatment. However, photosystem II was inhibited by lead salts when electron flow was measured from water to(More)