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CONTEXT Children and adults with psychopathic traits and conduct or oppositional defiant disorder demonstrate poor decision making and are impaired in reversal learning. However, the neural basis of this impairment has not previously been investigated. Furthermore, despite high comorbidity of psychopathic traits and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder,(More)
INTRODUCTION Social cognition is crucial for human interaction, and is markedly impaired in the frontal variant of frontotemporal dementia (fvFTD). The relationship of various aspects of social functioning, however, remains controversial in this group. METHODS Patients with fvFTD (n = 18), and matched controls (n = 13), were tested using tasks designed to(More)
Transient reductions in serotonin levels during tryptophan depletion (TD) are thought to impair reward processing in healthy volunteers, while another facet of the serotonergic system, the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) short allele polymorphism, is implicated in augmented processing of aversive stimuli. We examined the impact and interactions of TD and(More)
We examined the impact of witnesses on the neural response to moral and social transgressions using fMRI. In this study, participants (N=16) read short vignettes describing moral and social transgressions in the presence or absence of an audience. In line with our hypothesis, ventrolateral (BA 47) and dorsomedial (BA 8) frontal cortex showed increased BOLD(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the implications of an ontology of aggressive behavior which divides aggression into reactive, affective, defensive, impulsive (RADI) or "emotionally hot"; and planned, instrumental, predatory (PIP) or "emotionally cold." Recent epidemiological, criminological, clinical and neuroscience studies converge to support a connection between(More)
OBJECTIVE Data documenting the functional impairment associated with the diagnosis of bipolar disorder (BD) in children and adolescents highlight the need for greater understanding of its pathophysiology. Toward that end, we demonstrated previously that BD youth have behavioral deficits on reversal learning tasks. On such tasks, participants must first(More)
OBJECTIVES The neural correlates of human cooperative behavior remain poorly understood. Previous work has suggested that increases in striatal activation while punishing unfair offers represents reward signaling. However, other regions are also implicated when punishing others, for example dorsomedial frontal cortex (dmFC), anterior insula cortex (AIC),(More)
Social referencing paradigms in humans and observational learning paradigms in animals suggest that emotional expressions are important for communicating valence. It has been proposed that these expressions initiate stimulus-reinforcement learning. Relatively little is known about the role of emotional expressions in reinforcement learning, particularly in(More)
BACKGROUND Many patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) feel overwhelmed in situations with high levels of sensory input, as in crowded situations with complex sensory characteristics. These difficulties might be related to subtle sensory processing deficits similar to those that have been found for sounds in electrophysiological studies. (More)
Self-referential processing is defined as the process by which a person becomes aware that specific contents are related to his or her own self. Cortical midline structures (CMS), such as dorsal and medial prefrontal cortex, and regions such as inferior frontal cortex, insula, and temporal pole have been implicated in self-referential processing. However,(More)