James R. Alfano

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We report the complete genome sequence of the model bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato DC3000 (DC3000), which is pathogenic on tomato and Arabidopsis thaliana. The DC3000 genome (6.5 megabases) contains a circular chromosome and two plasmids, which collectively encode 5,763 ORFs. We identified 298 established and putative virulence(More)
The plant pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae is divided into pathovars differing in host specificity, with P. syringae pv. syringae (Psy) and P. syringae pv. tomato (Pto) representing particularly divergent pathovars. P. syringae hrp/hrc genes encode a type III protein secretion system that appears to translocate Avr and Hop effector proteins into(More)
Many phytopathogenic bacteria inject virulence effector proteins into plant cells via a Hrp type III secretion system (TTSS). Without the TTSS, these pathogens cannot defeat basal defenses, grow in plants, produce disease lesions in hosts, or elicit the hypersensitive response (HR) in nonhosts. Pathogen genome projects employing bioinformatic methods to(More)
The bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae injects effector proteins into host cells through a type III protein secretion system to cause disease. The enzymatic activities of most of P. syringae effectors and their targets remain obscure. Here we show that the type III effector HopU1 is a mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase (ADP-RT). HopU1 suppresses plant(More)
Phytopathogenic bacteria suppress plant innate immunity and promote pathogenesis by injecting proteins called type III effectors into plant cells using a type III protein secretion system. These type III effectors use at least three strategies to alter host responses. One strategy is to alter host protein turnover, either by direct cleavage or by modulating(More)
Many bacterial pathogens of plants and animals use a type III secretion system (TTSS) to deliver virulence effector proteins into host cells. Because effectors are heterogeneous in sequence and function, there has not been a systematic way to identify the genes encoding them in pathogen genomes, and our current inventories are probably incomplete. A(More)
Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, like many plant pathogenic bacteria, secretes a 'harpin' protein that can elicit the hypersensitive response (HR), a defensive cellular suicide, in non-host plants. The harpin-encoding hrpZ gene is located in an operon that also encodes Hrp secretion pathway components and is part of the functional cluster of hrp genes(More)
The Pseudomonas syringae type III protein secretion system (T3SS) and the type III effectors it injects into plant cells are required for plant pathogenicity and the ability to elicit a hypersensitive response (HR). The HR is a programmed cell death that is associated with effector-triggered immunity (ETI). A primary function of P. syringae type III(More)
The Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 type III secretion system (TTSS) is required for bacterial pathogenicity on plants and elicitation of the hypersensitive response (HR), a programmed cell death (PCD) that occurs on resistant plants. Cosmid pHIR11 enables non-pathogens to elicit an HR dependent upon the TTSS and the effector HopPsyA. We used pHIR11(More)